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Korruseplaan, Marcelluse teater

Korruseplaan, Marcelluse teater


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Marcelluse teater

Situation du théâtre sur le plan de Rome d & rsquoItalo Gismondi.

Giacobbe Giusti, Marcelluse teater

Fragment d & rsquoun masque de théâtre skulpté.

Giacobbe Giusti, Marcelluse teater

Fragment d & rsquoun chapiteau corinthien.

Giacobbe Giusti, Marcelluse teater

Palazzo Savelli prenant appui sur des passages du théâtre.

Giacobbe Giusti, Marcelluse teater

Fenêtres du Palazzo Savelli-Orsini au-dessus du deuxième étage.

Giacobbe Giusti, Marcelluse teater

Détail de l & rsquoarcade et des deux ordres superposés: premier étage dorique et deuxième étage ionique.

Giacobbe Giusti, Marcelluse teater

Giacobbe Giusti, Marcelluse teater

The Marcelluse teater (Ladina: Theatrum Marcelli , Itaalia: Teater di Marcello ) on iidne vabaõhuteater Roomas, Itaalias, ehitatud Rooma vabariigi lõpuaastatel. Teatris said nii kohalikud kui ka külalised vaadata draama- ja lauluetendusi. Täna pakub Rooma Sant & rsquoAngelo linnaosas asuv iidne ehitis taas ühe linna ja paljude populaarsete vaatamisväärsuste või turismiobjektide hulka. Teatri jaoks ruumi vabastas Julius Caesar, kes mõrvati enne selle ehitamist, kui teater oli 17. sajandil eKr piisavalt arenenud, mis oli osa teatri tähistamisest. ludi saeculares toimus teatris, see valmis aastal 13 eKr ja avati ametlikult augustis 12 eKr. [1]

Teater oli 111 m läbimõõduga ning see oli Vana -Rooma suurim ja tähtsaim teater [2], mis mahutas algselt 11 000 kuni 20 000 pealtvaatajat. [1] [2] See oli muljetavaldav näide sellest, millest pidi saama Rooma maailma üks levinumaid linnaarhitektuurivorme. Teater oli ehitatud peamiselt tufist ja betoonist, mis oli kaetud opus reticulatumina tuntud kividega, täielikult kaetud valge travertiiniga. Kuid see on ka Rooma varaseim dateeritav hoone, kus on kasutatud Rooma põletatud tellist, seejärel uus sissejuhatus Kreeka maailmast. [3]

Kaaride, koridoride, tunnelite ja kaldteede võrgustik, mis võimaldas juurdepääsu selliste Rooma teatrite interjööridele, oli tavaliselt kaunistatud kreeka tellimustega hõivatud veergude ekraaniga: põhjas dooriline, keskel joonia. Arvatakse, et ülemise taseme jaoks kasutati Korintose veerge, kuid see on ebakindel, kuna teater rekonstrueeriti keskajal, eemaldades istekohtade ülemise astme ja veerud. [1]

Nagu teistel Rooma teatritel sobivates kohtades, oli sellel ka avasid, mille kaudu oli näha looduslikku ümbrust, antud juhul edelas asuvat Tiberi saart. Püsiseade, scaena, tõusis ka tippu cavea nagu ka teistes Rooma teatrites.

Giacobbe Giusti, Marcelluse teater

Lõpposa, mis näitab hilisemat ümberehitust

Teater langes kasutusest välja 4. sajandi alguses ja struktuur oli karjäär nt. Pons Cestius aastal 370 pKr. Kuid hoone sees asuvad kujud taastas Petronius Maximus aastal 421 ja allesjäänud struktuuris asusid endiselt väikesed elamud. Varakeskajal kasutati teatrit Fabii kindlusena ja seejärel 11. sajandi lõpus (kui see oli tuntud kui templum Marcelli), autoriks Pier Leoni ja hiljem tema pärijad (Pierleoni). See päästis kompleksi edasisest hävitamisest. Savelli pidas seda 13. sajandil. Hiljem, 16. sajandil, ehitati iidse teatri varemete kohale Baldassare Peruzzi projekteeritud Orsini residents. 19. sajandiks tähendasid tänavataseme tõusud seda, et peaaegu pool esimest korrust oli sellest allpool.

Nüüd on ülemised korrused jagatud mitmeks korteriks ja selle ümbrust kasutatakse väikeste suviste kontsertide toimumiskohana. Portico d & rsquoOttavia asub loodes, mis viib Rooma getosse ja Tiberisse edelasse.

Inglise arhitekt Sir Christopher Wren tunnistas 17. sajandil selgesõnaliselt, et tema kujundus Oxfordi Sheldoni teatrile oli mõjutatud Serlio & lsquos graveeringust Marcelluse teatris.


Korruseplaan, Marcelluse teater - ajalugu

NIMI
Sant'Angelo on nimi, mis on antud Pescheria väikese Sant'Angelo kiriku järgi.
Linnaosa kandis varem nime Sant'Agnolo Pescivendolo ("St.Angel Fishmonger"), kuna lähedal asuv kalaturg asus Rooma Octavia veranda veergude all.
Keskajal oli see kümnes linnaosa, juba tuntud kui Regio Sancti Angeli in foro piscium ("St.Angel kalaturu ääres").


VAPP
Mõnes versioonis hoiab seisva ingli tiivuline kuju ühe käega tasakaalu ja teisega mõõk, teine ​​inimkuju aga lamab alasti maas, peaaegu lõpliku kohtuotsuse stseen. Kuid kaalud võisid olla ka viide kalaturule.
Teistes versioonides hoiab ingel hoopis palmilehte, mis on rahu märk. Kolmas ebatavaline versioon viitab selgemalt vanale turule, sisaldades ainult kala.

PIIR
Largo Arenula Florida kaudu delle Botteghe Oscure kaudu dell'Aracoeli kaudu Margana piazza Margana kaudu dei Delfini via dei Cavalletti via della Tribuna di Campitelli via del Teatro di Marcello via del Foro Olitorio lungotevere de 'Cenci via del Progresso piazza delle Cinque Scole via Santa Fe del Pianto kaudu Publicolis kaudu Sant'Elena.


PÕHIJOONED
(sulgudes olevad mustad numbrid viitavad paremal olevale kaardile)

Sant'Angelo on rionide seas väikseim, kuid kuni 1800. aastate lõpuni oli see üks tihedamini asustatud piirkondi Roomas, mis oli osaliselt tingitud juudi geto olemasolust, kuid isegi enne aia rajamist (st enne 1555) rajoon oli üsna rahvarohke.
säilinud vana kalaturu boksi numbrimärk

Tegelikult oli suur juudi kogukond, kes algselt elas jõe läänepoolsel küljel, Trasteveres, kuna keskaeg oli hakanud kolima sellesse linnaossa, kesklinnale lähemale.


Ajalooliselt hõlmab selle pind koht, kus kunagi laiutas suur Flaminiani tsirkus. Kui areen ja mitmed teised iidsed hooned enam ei seisnud, ehitati uusi maju, kasutades tänapäevalgi palju varemeid, linnaosa vanimate majade seinte tekstuuril on palju fragmente, mis on selgelt pärit Vana -Rooma ajastust.
See oli ka piirkond, kus oli eriti palju templeid, kuigi neid on jäänud väga vähe.

Pisikese linnaosa põhjaosas asub Torre Margana, üks vähestest Roomas säilinud keskaegsetest peretornidest, kust avaneb vaade tavaliselt käänuliste radade võrgustikule, mis annavad sellele Sant'Angelo osale endiselt väga eheda ilme. Hoone valmistamiseks kasutati Rooma fragmente: selle tagaküljel asuva maja sisehoovi sissepääsu raamib valge travertiiniga kaunis iidne reljeef ning torni ukse juures on näha ka väike iidne sammas.

Sant'Angelo lõunaosa hõlmab vana juudi getot [1] ja enamikku linnaosa arheoloogilistest omadustest.
Alates 1500. aastate keskpaigast hakkas Rooma kirik vastama protestantliku reformatsiooni sädemele, keerates teravalt kruvi katoliikliku õpetuse peale. Juudi kogukonda kasutati patuoinana, et kinnitada paavsti ohustatud autoriteeti: mitmetes linnades suurima mittekristliku kogukonna vastu võetud meetmete hulgas oli geto-nimelise aediku asutamine, kus juudid olid sunnitud elama.


Apollo Sosianuse templi veerud

Ghetto müüride vahel pidid tuhanded juudid toppima vanadesse ja väga väikestesse majadesse, mis olid peaaegu juhuslikult üksteise peale ehitatud, kuid selle väravate taga elasid rikkad pered elegantsetes häärberites.
Kuigi enamik kunagi Ghettole kuulunud sõiduradasid kadus 19. sajandi lõpuks, nende asemele tulid vähesed mahukad ja üsna anonüümsed kvartalid, on linnaosa siseosa tänavaplaan esialgsele üsna truu.

Samuti on väga hästi säilinud majade rida Via del Portico d'Ottavia põhjaosas, mis pärineb 1400ndate lõpust kuni 1500ndate keskpaigani.

vana juudi geto rajad

Üks neist on Palazzo Costaguti, mille peasissekäik asus algselt via della Reginella. Aga kuna pärast geto väljakuulutamist viis see rada kurikuulsasse aedikusse, piirasid omanikud ukseava kinni ja avasid nurga taga uue sissepääsu väikesel piazza mattei väljakul, kus asub kuulus kilpkonnade purskkaev [2]. . Selle võluva purskkaevu loo kohta leiate lisateavet purskkaevude III osa lehelt 5.

Palazzo Costaguti vastas on Palazzo Mattei, mille omanikud elasid kunagi Trastevere linnaosas, suur häärber, mille järgi väljak on oma nime saanud, koosneb tegelikult viiest erinevast majast, mis on ehitatud 15. sajandi lõpust kuni 17. sajandi alguseni ja mis on ühendatud üheks suureks blokeerida.

Ülalmainitu kõrval rippus della Reginella kaudu, vana ukseava taga, Geto viimane värav, mille 1830. aastate alguses lisas fanaatiline ja reaktsiooniline paavst Leo XII, kes kehtestas juudi kogukonna suhtes veelgi rangemad seadused. mitmed selle liikmed pidid Roomast põgenema.


Palazzo Costaguti vana sissepääs
mööda kitsast via della Reginella

(& uarr ülal) Palazzo Costaguti ehitud karniis
(& darr allpool) Kilpkonnade purskkaev

Algselt oli veranda suur ristkülikukujuline plats, mida ümbritses neljast küljest galerii, mida toetas kahekordne veerg: tänapäeval säilib vaid üks veranda neljast sissepääsust (sellel oli üks mõlemal küljel). See sissepääs seisis suure Flaminiani tsirkuse ühes otsas, mis pole enam säilinud, mis ulatus loode suunas Cenci perekonna maja poole (vt Rione VII Regola), kust leiti jälgi teisest otsast.

Seejärel muudeti Octavia veranda jäänused kalaturuks, mis oli aktiivne alates keskajast. Mõned 1800ndate lõpu maalid näitavad siiani, milline turg välja nägi (vt ka Ettore Roesler Franz ja Bygone Rome, lk 5).

Mõned esialgse sillutise osad jäetakse veranda alla ja need näitavad, kuidas maapind oli varem palju madalam kui praegu.

Keskajal ehitati veranda jäänuste alla väike kirik, nimega Sant'Angelo Pescherias (st St.Angel kalaturu poolt). Kiriku kõrval on väike kalakaupmeeste oratoorium (1600. aastate lõpp), mille esikülge kaunistab peen krohviteos, millel on kujutatud Püha Andreast ja ladinakeelne kiri "kalakaupmeeste palvekoht".

Selle kompleksi tagaküljel on kolm kõrget veergu, mis kuuluvad Apollo Sosianuse templisse, mida algselt nimetati meditsiiniliseks Apolloks. Umbes 430 eKr. Selle ehitas 1. sajandi lõpus eKr ümber konsul Sosianus ). Teine tempel, mis oli pühendatud sõjajumalannale Bellonale, seisis esimese juures, kuid täna on sellest jäänud väga vähe jälgi.


friis kalakaupmeeste oratooriumist

(& uarr ülal) Marcelluse teater ja emsp (paremal ja rarr) detail söövitusest
G.B.Piranesi: kaari (kollasega esile tõstetud) kasutati poodidena

Vahetult templi kõrval seisab paremini säilinud kahekorruseline teater, millest pool on püsti, ehitatud 1. sajandi lõpus eKr ja pühendatud Octavian Augustuse (on keisri Octavia poeg) hilisele vennapojale Marcellusele [4]. õde) ja samal ajal ka tema väimees (olles abiellunud keisri tütre Iulia Vanemaga).


Pompey teater

1. A Pompeyuse teatri reproduktsioon, sealhulgas asukoht Veenuse tempel.

2. Teise sajandi e.m.a. Heraklese kuju.

3. Üks kahest kujust satiirid teatrist leitud.

4. Teine satiir. Vaadake, kuidas need peegelduvad üksteist.

5. The jõe jumal kahe satiiniga külgedel.

6. The Pompeius kuju.

7. The alumine söögituba restoranis Da Pancrazio.

8. Veeru jäänused aasta söögitoas Da Pancrazio.

9. Via di Grotta Pinta ja hoone järgivad kumerust cavea teatrist.

10. Vaade Campo dei Fiori.

Mujal siin blogis kirjutasime Julius Caesari kavandatud Marcelluse teatrist, mis ehitati aastal 11 e.m.a. Augustus, kes pühendas selle oma vennapojale Marcellusele. Caesari teatri plaan oli inspireeritud eelnevast ja palju uhkemast struktuurist: Pompey teater.

Aga kes see mees oli Pompeius (106–48 eKr)? Ta oli suurepärane Rooma kindral, kes alguses oli liitunud Julius Caesariga. Näiteks oli ta abielus Caesari tütre Juliaga, samuti kuulus ta esimesse triumviraati koos Caesari ja Crassusega. Kuid nende suhetes ei läinud kõik libedalt ja lõpuks oli a jõhker kodusõda kahe kindrali vahel, mis lõppes Pompey mõrv.

61. aastal, kui Pompeius oli veel oma võimu ja populaarsuse tipul, otsustas ta lasta ehitada teatri, kuid see erineks nii suurusest kui ka ehitusmaterjalist erinevalt teistest Roomas kunagi ehitatud teatritest.

Enne Pompeyuse aega olid Rooma teatrid ajutised hooned, valmistatud puidust. Lava pandi etenduseks kokku ja lammutati kohe pärast etendust maha. Istmeid polnud, nii et pealtvaatajad lihtsalt seisid või istusid maas.

Pompeius muudaks seda kommet dramaatiliselt, ehitades Rooma esimese alalise teatri, kivist. Töö algas aastal 61 ja valmis aastal 55. See oli tohutu hinnang püsiva istekoha kohta alates 18 000 kuni 27 000 pealtvaatajat. (Tõde peitub ilmselt kusagil kahe äärmuse vahel). Sellest sai üks Rooma imesid. Pompeius lasi teatrile isegi templi ehitada (foto 1), mille ta pühendas Veenus Victrix (Triumfne Veenus), et meenutada oma sõjalisi võite.

Pompeiusel oleks hea meel teada saada, et tema teater kestis sajandeid, jätkab tööd kuni neljanda sajandi esimene pool. Mitmed keisrid toetasid teatri restaureerimist, sealhulgas Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula ja Diocletianus. See ei elaks aga keskaega üle, kuna see sai a kivikarjäär kasutatakse materjalide varustamiseks teiste konstruktsioonide ehitamiseks.

Meie ajastusse on aga säilinud mitu teatrist pärit kunstiteost, millest olulisemad on neli kuju säilitatakse Rooma muuseumides. Üks neist on leitav Vatikani muuseumid: suurepärane, kolossaalne Heraklese pronkskuju, kolmteist jalga pikk (foto 2), Rooma teos teine ​​sajand e.m.a.

See kuju, avastati 1864, oli tahtlikult maetud suure hoolega, mis oli kahe kiviplaadi vahel, et seda kaitsta ja säilitada. Lugu seisneb selles, et kuju tabas a välgunool, mille viskas Jupiter, siis kohe kohapeal maetud selliselt, et see jäädavalt säiliks. Ja tegelikult on isegi fotol näha, et kuju on meie juurde jõudnud ideaalselt säilinud.

The Kapitooliumi muuseumid Roomas võib kiidelda kaks esimese sajandi eKr kuju Pompey teatrist (fotod 3 ja 4). Nad kujutavad kahte satiirid kes esindavad Pani, karjade ja karjaste jumalat, võib neid näha Palazzo Nuovo (muuseumi vasakpoolne tiib), üks mõlemal pool tohutut lamava jõejumala kuju (foto 5). Vaadake hoolikalt iga satiini kahte kätt ja näete, et need on peegli peegeldused üksteisest. Arvatakse, et neid on teatris kasutatud mõne muu struktuuri püsiva toena.

Kuid võib -olla põnevaim ellujäämine teatrist on muuseum Palazzo Spada. See on suur esimene sajand e.m.a. Pompeius kuju (foto 6) avastati aastal teatri varemetest 1555. Teatri ees oli suur sisehoov, mis sisaldas 100 veergu, mille lõpus oli teine ​​hoone nimega Kura Pompeiusest. See oli kogunemissaal, kus aeg -ajalt kogunes Rooma senat, mis asus otse vastas Largo Argentina, nelja vabariikliku templi koht.

Me teame, et Julius Caesar mõrvati märtsikuu ajal 44 eKr. aastal Kura Pompeiusest. Teda ründasid 23 senaatorit, kellest igaüks pussitas teda üks kord. Üks traditsioon ütleb seda Caesar langes Pompeyuse kuju jalamile keda ta kodusõjas alistas. Kui vaatate hoolikalt Palazzo Spada kuju, näete a punakas plekk ausamba põhja lähedal. Caesari veri.

Kahjuks pole selle kuulsa kuju vaatamiseks lihtne sisse pääseda. Kuigi see asub Palazzo Spadas, ei asu see tavaliselt üldsusele avatud hoone osas. Kujundit sisaldavat giidiga ekskursiooni pakutakse kord kuus ja broneeringud tuleb teha aegsasti.

Teatri enda olulisi jäänuseid võib leida kahes ebatõenäolises kohas: restoran ja hotell. Restoranis Da Pancrazio, alumise taseme söögituba on ehitatud Pompeyuse teatri nähtavatesse varemetesse (foto 7). Mul on olnud rõõm einestada seal mitu korda, sealhulgas eelmisel suvel koos New Orleansi ülikooli tudengite ja professorite rühmaga. See on tõesti ainulaadne kogemus. Lisaks on restoranis väike teatrikompleksi mudel mis annab teile suurepärase ettekujutuse selle koha tegelikust väljanägemisest ja selle tohutust suurusest. Restoranis eksponeeritakse ka osa a marmorist veerg (foto 8) teatrist. Läheduses saab näha ka teatri jäänuseid Hotel del Teatro di Pompeo kus alumise taseme söögituba ümbritseb täielikult teatri iidsed seinad.

Teatri suurusest saate hea ettekujutuse väikeselt tänavalt, Via di Grotta Pinta (foto 9), mis kõverdub pärast kõverust cavea (orkester ja istumisnurk), nagu ka teatris tohutu hoone nüüd saidil ja tänava poole. Lisaks, kui seisate läheduses asuva keset Campo dei Fiori, Giordano Bruno ausammast paremal ja vaadake kuju vastassuunas vastupidises suunas, näete hoone kolmandal tasemel kaks väikest veergu seinale mõlemal pool akent (foto 10). Need kaks veergu ja kaks pilastrit mõlemal pool neist kuulusid Pompeyuse teatrile.


VIII PEATÜKK - Bow Street ja Russell Street Area

Vähesed tänavad Covent Gardenis on kaheksateistkümnenda sajandi lõpust alates oma esialgset iseloomu rohkem muutnud kui Bow Street. Tänava praeguse aspekti määravad kaks tegurit: selle funktsioon osana läbivast teest Waterloo sillast St. Gilesi ja Bloomsburyni ning selle ees olevate suurte hoonete avalik või poolavalik olemus. Algselt ei kuulunud tänav aga olulise sideühenduse osaks, kuna sellel ei olnud põhjapoolseid avasid Pika aakri poole (tahvel 7), ja kuni Smirke Covent Garden'i teatri ehitamiseni 1809. aastal oli sisuliselt tavaline majade, kaupluste ja kaupluste tänav. kõrtsid.

Aastal ilmusid selle esimesed elanikud kihelkonna hinnakirjadesse c. 1633. Läänekülg, mis töötati välja aastatel 1631–2013 sõlmitud Bedfordi rendilepingute alusel, mis on tabelis toodud lehekülgedel 294–7, oli esimene, mis valmis 1635. aastaks.

Idaküljel moodustas esikülje põhjapoolse osa tellissein c. 1610. aastal Bedfordi kolmanda krahvi poolt (vt lk 24) ja selle taga olev maa, mille teine ​​krahv andis 1574. aastal pikaajalise rendilepinguga Sir Edmund Careyle, (viide 6) jäi esialgu välja arendamata, kuna tegi tüki tasulist talukohta kohe selle lõuna pool. Ülejäänud idapoolne rinne, lõuna suunas Russell Streetini, pöördus seinast veidi lääne poole ja selle osa ehitamine lõpetati kolm või neli aastat pärast läänepoolset külge. (viide 7)

Erinevalt teistest peatänavatest Covent Gardenis Bow Street ei võtnud oma nime (mida ta kandis 1638. aastaks (jn 7)) Russelli või kuningliku perekonna järgi. Kahtlemata, nagu Strype oletas, tuletati nimi selle kuju järgi. (viide 8)

Hinnakirjad näitavad, et tänava esimeste majade väärtus varieerus märkimisväärselt ja ka elanikud olid erinevad. Mõned pealkirjaga inimesed esinevad algusest peale. Esimeste elanike hulka kuulus ka ehitusspekulant Richard Harris, kes, kui ta polnud vangis, võitis oma karjääri hädad nr 4 (Russell Streeti turu kohas): põhja pool oli üks esimesi elanikke koolmeister, Thomas Haywood või Howard. (joonis 9) Tundub, et tänav ei ole kunagi saavutanud ühtlast elamispindade lugupidavust ega olnud sama palju parem kaupmehe tänav kui Bedford Street või King Street. Võib -olla oli see rohkem animeeritud kui nad olid ja atraktiivsemad elavate või andekate inimeste jaoks. 1690ndate aastate lõpuks olid elanikeks Grinling Gibbons, William Wycherley (arvatavasti ööbimiskohtades (viide 10)), doktor John Radcliffe, vanem Marcellus Laroon, doktor Humphrey Ridley, sulepea John Ayres, leedi Craven ja Willi omanik. kohvik. (viide 7)

Viimane oli rajatud 1671. aastal äsja ehitatud majas nr 1 William Urwini poolt, kellelt see oma nime sai. See asus osa suuremast kinnistust, kuhu varem kuulus Kolme Roosi nime all nurgahoone (nr 21 Russell Street, algselt kitse kõrtsi asukoht) ja nr 20 Russell Street. (lk 11) Drydeni eestkoste all sai Will kiiresti kuulsaks ja 1690. aastateks oli seda laiendatud ka nurgamaja ülemisse ossa. (lk 12) Umbes sel ajal oli Urwinil „varandus aegunud” ja tema hüpoteegipidaja, tsiviilisikust doktor William Oldys (jn 13) pidi panema halduri. (fn. 14) 1720. aastatel oli see piisavalt jõukas, et hõlmata ka nr 20 Russell Streeti ülemine osa. (fn. 15) nr 1 Bow Street jätkas Willi kohvimaja nime all vähemalt kuni 1730. aastani, (fn. 10), kuid 1743. aastal oli see tuntud kui Chapmani kohvimaja ja 1751. aastaks oli nimi Will's üle kantud kohvik Väikesel Piazzal. (fn. 16) (fn. 1)

Tänava ehitamine oli lõpule viidud aastatel 1673–7, püstitades üheteistkümne maja idakülje põhjaotsa, kus Hollari vaates on silmapaistev aed (tahvel 1). Aastal 1659 oli Sir Edmund Carey omandatud siinne rendile antav intress üle läinud auväärsele Arthur Annesley'le (fn. 17) (kes loodi 1661. aastal Anglesey krahviks), kuid 1673. aastaks oli kogu või suurem osa tänavafassaadist taas Bedfordi viies krahv (viide 18) ja selle aluseks oli aasta 1675 olla ehituskaupmees, Thomas Thurban, müürsepp. Rendilepingu eellepingud olid materjalide ja puitmaterjalide osas väga spetsiifilised ning sisaldasid nõuet, et katusepuit, esimene korrus ja välised puitdetailid peavad olema tammepuidust. Selged ruumi kõrgused maapinnal, esimesel ja teisel korrusel olid vastavalt 10, 10½ ja 9 jalga. Kõrgused pidid olema ühtlased, vastavalt Earli maamõõtja heakskiidetud kujundusele. (fn. 19)

Idapoolse äärmise põhjapoolsema otsa ehitas sel ajal kaks 'ühtlast' maja seesama Blake, kes oli Bedfordi krahvi rentnik, kuid näiliselt Anglesey krahvi rentnikuna või kahe krahvi ametiajal. koos. Tema ehitustööd hõlmasid väravat, mis oli piisavalt kõrge, et võtta koormaga heinavanker, mis ilmselt suhtles Red Lion Inniga: (jn. 20) 1680. aastate kaartide Red Lion Court kaardid, mis avanevad siin Bow Streetile Drury Lane'ilt.

See oli Bedfordi krahvi kavatsus teha side ka põhja poole, Long Acre'iga, ja tema 1673. aasta rendilepingud sisaldasid sätet täiendava maa üüri maksmise kohta, kui see tehti. Midagi muud siiski ei tehtud, kui loodi põhjapoolne tupiktee, kus puusepp Thomas Chaplin oli 1675. aastal krahvi hoone rentnik. (Lk 21)

Vahetult lõuna pool Earli maju pandi kaks teist (nr 29 ja 30) üles kohtadele, mis ei kuulunud enam tema valdusse. (lk 6) Ehitaja oli müürsepp Richard Frith, kes kasutas ilmselt lõdvemat kontrolli, kui seda kasutati krahvi majade üle, et kasutada halbu materjale. Tyllerite ja müürseppade ettevõte määras talle trahvi selle eest, et kasutas Deptfordi kalakaupmehe Thomas Pitcheri (viide 22) poolt talle tarnitud defektseid plaate ja umbes kakskümmend kuus aastat hiljem, aastal 1702, üks neist majadest, mis oli tol ajal elas Grinling Gibbons, kukkus maha. (lk 23) Seejärel kolis Gibbons naaberpiirkonda lõunasse ja ehitas endale uue maja esimese Bedfordi hertsogi rendilepingu alusel. (viide 24)

Aastal 1720 leidis tänav poolehoidu Strype'ilt - "avatud ja suur, väga heade majadega, hästi asustatud ja Gentry majutuskohtade poole pöördunud". (fn. 8) Mõni aasta hiljem oli kihelkonnal aga tänaval vaene maja või õdede maja (lk 25) ja 1739. aastal kadus viimane eraisik, kes oli tituleeritud. Järgmisel aastal ilmub Sir Thomas De Veil hinnakirjadesse, Larooni vana maja asukohta nr 4, kuid tema magistraadikohtu rajamine siia (vt lk 188) rikkus kahtlemata tänava elanike poolt. Aastaks 1743 oli Bow Streetil kaheksa litsentseeritud ruumi. (lk 26) Punase Lõvi õukonna territooriumil aastatel 1745–1970 tehtud Broad Court andis sellele ümbruskonnale igavavälise välimuse, kuid vaatamata neljanda hertsogi palgatud ehituskaupmeestele oli see ulatus ja sotsiaalne iseloom areng oli üsna tagasihoidlik (vt lk 40 ja tahvlid 52b, 59a).

Alates 1732. aastast oli läänepoolsel küljel väike auk Covent Garden'i teatrisse. Suurem sissepääs tehti mõne ukse võrra lõuna poole, võib -olla umbes 1776. (lk 7) Kaheksateistkümnenda sajandi lõpuks oli ehitatud veergudega verandad, kuid teatril polnud veel Bow Streetile fassaadi.

Viienda krahvi kavatsuse pääseda Pika aakri äärde viis lõpuks viies hertsog aastatel 1792–3 ja seejärel läbiviidud lõik loovutati avaliku maanteena St. Martin in the Fields asfaltkomissaridele. Algul oli selle taga baar. (lk 27) Pika aakri laiendust laiendasid 1835. aastal metsade, metsade ja maatulude volinikud peaaegu praegusele laiusele. See oli koos Wellington Streeti ehitamisega (vt lk 226) ja sellel oli suur tähtsus Bow Streeti esmakordsel avamisel tihedale läbisõidule.

Selleks ajaks oli Bow Street oma elamutänava ajaloo lõpusirgel. Tundub, et teatri lähedus muutis tänava põhjaotsa eriti halvaks. Kui metsa-, metsade- ja maatulundusvolinikud pidasid 1833. aastal läbirääkimisi siinse maa ostmise üle, leidsid nad, et Bedfordi hertsogi rentnik James Robinson omas bordelli soovitud kohas Hart Streeti põhjaosas. samuti teine ​​vastand, Bow Streeti idaküljel. Pikkade läbirääkimiste ajal süüdistas Robinsoni advokaat volinike maamõõtjat JW Higginsi eelarvamustes „minu kliendi elukutse” suhtes, samas kui teine ​​volinike ametnikest väljendas veendumust, et Robinson pikendab oma ametiaega „ulakas majas Hart Streetil”. "mädanemishooaeg on läbi". (fn. 28) (fn. 2) Ala puhastamine ei mõjutanud ilmselt piirkonna iseloomu. Aastal 1844 kurtis Hart Streeti põhjapoolses nurgas asuva hoone valdaja kogudusele, et tal on „minu maja ümber palju bordelle”, ja soovitas Bow Street'i kurikuulsa nime Wellington Streetiks muuta. (viide 29)

Olenemata selle sotsiaalsest iseloomust, muutis tänava põhjaotsa välimust 1809. aastal Robert Smirke'i Covent Garden'i teatri hoone. (Lk 3). - ooperimaja ja lillesaal (1856–60), politseijaoskond ja magistraadikohus (1879–1880), ringkonnakohtu ümberehitus (1897, RS Wornum (fn. 30)) ja telefonijaam (1964–) 7).

Algsest tänavast on alles vaid vahemik nr 35 kuni Russell Streeti nurk, kus on säilinud vanad alajaotused, millel on suhteliselt hiljutised tähelepanuväärsed hooned. Nende hulka kuuluvad aga kaks rahvamaja, Globe (nr 37) ja Marquis of Anglesea (aadressil 39 Bow Street ja nr 23 Russell Street), mis asuvad aladel, kus litsentseeritud ruumid asusid (kuigi mitte katkematult) tagasi) varajane kuupäev. Globe'i saidil oli viktoriaal valduses 1682. aastaks (lk 31), samal ajal kui Anglesea markii asus samal aastal (aadressil nr 39) (Ed. Milesi kohvimaja Russelli tänava nurgal 1663. (fn. 32)

Bow Streetil on tasulisi elanikke: Lady Dorothy Fowles, 1633–41 Dr Robert Gifford, 1633–41 Sir Edward Payton, 1633–9, parlamendi brošüür Sir Egremont Thynne, 1633–6 Lady Milleson, 1635. Castlebar ja hiljem Sussexi esimene krahv, 1635 Sir Thomas Sherley, 1635–6 Sir Richard Tichborne, 1636 Lady Arthurlong, 1637 Dr Lawrence, 1638 Christopher Lewtener, 1637–9,? Christopher Lewkenor, pika parlamendi liige "Monsieur Amy Merriott",? Paul Amyraut, 1639–1640, jumalik leedi Carey (Carewe), c. 1640–3 Kapten Daniel Goodriche, 1640–4 Sir William Mountick, c. 1640–1 Castlehaveni krahvinna, 1641–3 kolonel Vaviser, 1643 kapten Welby, 1643 Sir William Lister, c. 1645, pika parlamendi liige Brian Stapleton, 1645–52, pika parlamendi liige dr Walter Charleton, c. 1651–6, arst Thomas Wharton, c. 1651 ,? arst William Clarke, 1653–5 ,? (Sir) William Clarke, hilisem sõja sekretär Edmond Waller, 1654–6, luuletaja, pika parlamendi liige „Doctor Whitacre”, 1654–7 ,? Tobias Whitaker, arst "Thos Blunt Esq", 1657,? Thomas Blount, autor Lady Coveley (Covell), 1658–60 Sir George Wakeman, 1663–440, Braganza kuninganna Catherine'i “Lovelace Esq” arst, 1664 ,? John Lovelace, hiljem kolmas Hurley parun Lovelace, Whig Sir Richard Corbett, 1666 William Denton, c. 1667–79, arst ja poliitiline kirjanik Charles Howard, vikont Andover ja aastast 1669 Berkshire’i krahv, 1667–70 Sir Thomas Ashton, 1668 John Austin, 1668–9, katoliku kirjanik varjunimega William Birchley, major Michael Mohun, 1671–66, näitleja Dr Richard Lower, 1672–81, arst dr Edward Duke, c. 1675–81 Thomas Hawker, c. 1675–82 ,? portreemaalija Henry Powle, c. 1675–8, hilisem rullimeister ja konvendi parlamendi spiiker Thomas Jordan, 1676–80, luuletaja Grinling Gibbons, 1678–84, 1689–1721, puunikerdaja ja skulptuur William Longueville, 1679–81, jurist ja sõber luuletaja Samuel Butler, kes külastas teda sageli Bow Streetil, vanem Marcellus Laroon, 1680–1702, maalikunstnik ja graveerija dr Charles Conquest, 1682–92 Charles Sackville, Dorseti kuues krahv, c. 1684–5, luuletaja ja õukondlane kolonel Sackville, c. 1684–93 kapten David Lloyd, c. 1686–8, mereväekapten ja jakobiitide agent dr John Radcliffe, 1686–c. 1702, arst Edward Cooke, 1688 ,? dramaatiline luuletaja Lady Colliton, 1691 Dr Humphrey Ridley, 1691–c. 1702, arst John Ayres, c. 1698, sulepea Lady Craven, c. 1698 Kapten David Overy, c. 1702 Dr. Bigg(s), c. 1705–12 Dr. Thomas Walker, c. 1705–14 Dr. Thomas West, c. 1705–6 'Mr. Tonson', 1707, Jacob Tonson, publisher Dr. Richard Adams, 1708–15 Colonel Townsend, 1726–9 Robert Wilks, 1727–32, actor Lady Catherine Paul, 1729 Edmund Curll, 1730–1, bookseller George Douglas, fourth Baron Mordington, 1730–4, Whig pamphleteer Charles Johnson, c. 1736–8, dramatist Lady Oliphant, c. 1736–9 (Sir) Thomas De Veil, 1740–6, magistrate John Hippisley, 1740–7, actor and dramatist 'Dr. Scott', 1740–6, ? Dr. Daniel Scott, theological writer and lexicographer Dr. Coats Molesworth, 1742 Charles Macklin, 1743–8, actor Spranger Barry, 1747–58, actor Colonel John Mostyn, 1748–51, later Governor of Minorca Henry Fielding, 1749–53, novelist and magistrate (Sir) John Fielding, 1754–80, magistrate John Rich, 1754–61, proprietor of Covent Garden Theatre, succeeded in same house by Mrs. Rich, 1761–7 Messrs. Harris and Co., 1768–92 David Ross, 1755–60, actor Bonnell Thornton, 1759–62, miscellaneous writer and wit Richard Yates, 1764–79, comedian Samuel Howard, 1765–77, ? organist and composer Daniel Dodd, 1772–3, ? painter Robert Carver, 1775, landscape and scene painter William Thompson, 1776–80, 1782, ? portrait painter Charles Lee Lewes, 1778–80, actor John Richards, 1781–90, ? John Inigo Richards, R.A., landscape and scene painter Sir Sampson Wright, 1781–92, magistrate William Thomas Lewis, 1793–9, actor William Smith, 1798, ? actor Thomas Harris, 1808–20, co-proprietor of Covent Garden Theatre William Gilpin, 1811–14, ? William Sawrey Gilpin William Wycherley, dramatist, lodged in Bow Street in 1715 and earlier years.

Nos. 7 and 8 Bow Street and 52 Floral Street

The Royal Opera House and the Floral Hall

These are described in Survey of London volume xxxv.

Bow Street Police Court and Police Station

Bow Street's association with the maintenance of law and order dates from 1740, when (Sir) Thomas De Veil, a justice of the peace for Middlesex, acquired the lease of No. 4 Bow Street and transferred his office there. (fn. 33) This house stood on the west side of the street a few yards to the south of the Royal Opera House on the site now covered by sheds connected with the market, and with the addition of the adjoining No. 3 in 1813 it remained the court-house of the Bow Street magistrates until the opening of the present building on the east side of the street in 1880. The first Metropolitan Police Station in Bow Street was opened in 1832 at Nos. 33–34 upon part of the site now occupied by the new telephone exchange on the east side of the street, where it remained until it too removed in 1880 to the present building adjoining the magistrates' court.

De Veil's house had been built in 1703–4 by John Browne, a surgeon. (fn. 34) The court was probably held in one of the principal ground-floor rooms. (fn. 4) Under De Veil the Bow Street office began to acquire its pre-eminence within the metropolitan magistracy, and two years after his death in 1747 Henry Fielding, the novelist and playwright, was appointed to the Bow Street office. (fn. 35) Fielding was the originator of the small band of 'thief-takers' which later became known as the Bow Street Runners, (fn. 36) and after his death in 1754 he was succeeded by his blind half-brother, (Sir) John Fielding. In 1763 Fielding's court-room was described by Boswell as a 'back hall', (fn. 37) and this no doubt was the high narrow room with a public gallery depicted on Plate 60d. (fn. 38)

On 6 June 1780 the house was attacked during the Gordon riots but the damage was evidently not extensive for on 14 June Sir John wrote to Robert Palmer, the Duke of Bedford's agent, 'My lease is not of long duration. I shou'd be glad to know from you how far it can be extended by his Grace, so as to justify my repairing the old office which I am inform'd may be easily done and which I wou'd wish to do immediately in order to establish the Public office.' (fn. 39) Sir John died on 4 September 1780 but in April 1781 his executors received a ten-year extension of the lease from the fifth Duke of Bedford, in consideration of the cost of repairing the damage sustained during the riots. (fn. 40)

By 1811, when the magistrate James Read renewed the lease of No. 4, a new court-room had been built in the yard behind (Plate 61a). This was a single-storey building measuring 20 feet by 30 feet and connected to the house by a narrow passage only 6 feet wide. Two years later in 1813 Read acquired the lease of the next-door house, No. 3 Bow Street, at the back of which there was a 'felons room' which could be entered from the room immediately behind the public office at No. 4. (fn. 41) Later the yard behind No. 3 was converted into cells and a gaoler's room. (fn. 42)

A drawing reproduced on Plate 60a shows the front of No. 4 in 1825 when it still retained much of its early eighteenth-century appearance. The court-room entrance, formed out of a window of the ground storey, is on the left.

The establishment of the Metropolitan Police by Sir Robert Peel's Act of 1829 did not affect the Bow Street magistrates' office, but the ancient parish watch-house in St. Paul's churchyard was taken over by the Metropolitan Police Commissioners (see page 126). It proved quite inadequate for the needs of the new force, and in 1832 the headquarters of the Covent Garden police division was transferred to a handsome 'new Station House' which had been built in 1831–2 on the east side of Bow Street on the site of Nos. 33–34 (fn. 43) (Plate 60c). The sixth Duke of Bedford granted a sixty-one-year building lease of the site to William Bucke, esquire (apparently the builder), who granted a sub-lease of the finished building to the Police Receiver. At first the Receiver declined the lease because of a restrictive covenant forbidding tenants to do anything on the premises which might annoy any of the Duke's tenants. He was no doubt apprehensive about the noise to be anticipated from the prisoners in the cells, which were grouped around an open courtyard behind the house. The Duke's agent eventually agreed to modify the covenant by inserting the words 'otherwise than by the occupation of the said premises as a police station and for the temporary confinement of prisoners prior to their confinement.' (fn. 44)

The police remained here until their removal to the present station in 1880, when Nos. 33–34 were converted into a market warehouse: the building has since been demolished.

Meanwhile the old magistrates' court at Nos. 3–4, opposite the police station, was beginning to feel the pressures of increased business. In May 1840 the Receiver of the Metropolitan Police Force (to whom responsibility for the maintenance of the magistrates' courts had been transferred by an Act of 1839) applied to the seventh Duke of Bedford for permission to demolish and rebuild both the houses used for the court. The Duke's agent welcomed the proposal: 'on account of the vicinity of the Market and the two Theatres, I think it desirable that the Police Court should be retained in Bow Street', he wrote, (fn. 45) but the scheme was nevertheless dropped and instead the Duke granted a repairing lease of both houses. (fn. 42) Repairs included the refacing of No. 4 with a suitably imposing stucco front incorporating the royal arms (Plate 60b), but the court-room itself was not enlarged and in particular nothing was done about the narrow passage into it. Conditions in the court continued to deteriorate and in April 1860 The Builder described them as 'in winter bad, but in the heat of summer perfectly abominable' the building should be 'entirely reconstructed'. (fn. 46)

Two years later the Bedford Office suggested to the Receiver of the Metropolitan Police that the leases of Nos. 3 and 4 Bow Street should be surrendered in return for a building lease of a site in Russell Street opposite Drury Lane Theatre. The Receiver declined the offer on the grounds of cost, despite being warned 'of the injury and inconvenience which the business of the Police Court and Station are to the public as well as to the Duke's tenants, and the strong and reasonable objections that exist to the renewal of the lease of No. 3 and 4 Bow Street when his Grace has to consider and decide upon that subject'. (viide 47)

Perhaps with this veiled threat in mind the Receiver agreed in 1867 to rebuild the police court on the east side of Bow Street alongside the police station when the existing lease expired. The site was to extend back from Bow Street and then turn at a right angle to include the same area as had been offered by the Bedford Office in 1862. (fn. 48) But this scheme was also abandoned and despite its obvious inadequacy the old court was still in use when the lease expired in 1872. By this time the Commissioners of Works and Public Buildings had become responsible for the provision of police court buildings, (fn. 49) and they were obliged to apply to the Bedford estate for a temporary tenancy of the building until a suitable alternative site could be found. The Bedford estate agreed to grant a lease on a year-to-year basis at a greatly increased rent. (fn. 50) Towards the end of 1873 the Commissioners proposed to move the police court away from Bow Street altogether to a site on the east side of Castle Street (now Charing Cross Road). (fn. 51) The necessary Parliamentary Bill was prepared, but again the scheme was abandoned. (viide 52)

The problem of finding a suitable site was eventually solved in 1876 when the ninth Duke agreed to the suggestion of his steward, Thomas Davison, that the Office of Works should be offered a new site on the east side of Bow Street opposite the Opera House for a building to house both a new police court and police station. (fn. 53) The proposed site was bounded by Bow Street, Broad Court and Cross Court on its west, north and east sides respectively and on the south by No. 29 Bow Street, a property not owned by the Duke. (fn. 5) At this time the site was covered by nineteen individual houses, the leases of which had to be acquired by the Office of Works at their own expense before the site could be redeveloped. (fn. 54)

In July 1876 an agreement was reached between the Duke and the Commissioners of Works and Public Buildings for a ninety-nineyear lease at an annual rent of £1,100. The lessees agreed to secure the surrender of all the existing leases and to extinguish the right of way through Duke's Court, a passage from Bow Street into Cross Court through No. 27. (fn. 54) The lessees also agreed to give up a triangular piece of ground fronting Bow Street in order to set the frontage of the new site back from its original line by about 20 feet at the north end with a view to the ultimate widening of the north end of Bow Street. (fn. 55) This agreement of 1876 was ratified in the same year by the Bow Street Police Court (Site) Act which authorized the Commissioners to proceed with the building. (viide 56)

By April 1877, when work began on clearing the site, over £100,000 was said to have been paid for the purchase of the existing buildings and in compensation to the dispossessed tenants. (fn. 57) A legal dispute over the boundary of the site delayed the start of building-work until March 1879 when the contractors, George Smith and Company, began to excavate for the foundations. (fn. 58) The building was completed towards the end of 1880. Its cost was £38,400, exclusive of the architect's fees and legal charges. (fn. 59) The architect was (Sir) John Taylor of the Office of Works. (fn. 58)

The old court at Nos. 3–4 Bow Street was vacated at Midsummer 1881: six years later these two houses were demolished to allow for the expansion of the market. (fn. 60)

Since the demolition of No. 29 Bow Street and re-alignment of Martlett Court in 1905 (fn. 61) the site of the Police Court and Station has been completely isolated from surrounding buildings. At ground level the plan is divided into two parts by the van entrance from Bow Street, the courts occupying the north part of the site and the police station the south. Two blocks of cells form the south and east sides of the internal quadrangle. Apart from the placing of the entrances, the disposition of the plan is not clearly expressed in the principal elevation, the architect being concerned, according to The Builder, that the Bow Street front should 'be of rather ornamental character, so as to harmonize to some extent with the opera house opposite'. (fn. 57) The engaged order in the central feature faintly reflects the Corinthian portico of the Opera House, but otherwise the eclectic treatment, combining Graeco-Roman and Renaissance elements, suggests the influence of C. R. Cockerell and James Pennethorne (Plate 61b). The composition is, in fact, reminiscent of Pennethorne's University of London building at No. 6 Burlington Gardens. Portland stone is used throughout the Bow Street front, the splayed north-west face, and for the dressings of the short return front in Broad Court.

The Bow Street front has a central feature, four storeys high and three bays wide, its second and third storeys dressed with an engaged Corinthian order of plain-shafted columns. This is flanked by projecting pavilions of one wide bay, and three-storeyed wings, each three windows wide and on the same plane as the central feature. The ground storey is coursed with channelled joints, as are the clasping piers of the pavilions and the wide piers terminating the front laterally, all of which have stone courses with raised faces. A simple architrave and cornice finishes the ground storey, below the pedestalcourse which underlines the lofty second storey and incorporates the panelled pedestals of the columns and piers, the balustrades of the middle windows, and the panelled aprons of the wing windows. A moulded sill-band, broken only by the Corinthian columns, underlines the windows of the third storey. Above this extends the main, Corinthian, entablature, its frieze having raised panels in the projections above the piers. The central feature and projecting pavilions are surmounted by the attic storey, and the wings are finished with open balustrades stopping at each end of the front against pseudo-belvederes of Vanbrughian inspiration, arcaded on each face and surmounted, above the entablature, by acroteriae of scrolls and palmettes. This Grecian note pervades the central attic, where the central face is divided into three bays by boldly projecting piers with panelled faces. The pavilions are similarly treated, and the crowning balustrade is broken by projecting dies in the centre, and above the piers of the pavilions by tall pilastered pedestals bearing acroteriae.

The fenestration is of a restrained Renaissance character, the main feature being the series of tall windows in the second storey, all finished with pediments. Those of the pavilions are emphasized by triangular pediments, the rest being segmental, and all are supported on decorated consoles rising from plain jambs flanking the moulded architraves. The third- and fourth-storey windows have plain architraves, the sides lugged top and bottom, with small foliage-flanked cartouches above the heads. The two entrances in the ground storey of the pavilions are markedly different, breaking the symmetry of the design, but expressing the disposition of the plan. The police station entrance is approached by steps flanked by stone pedestals supporting iron lamp-standards. The door surround is of Mannerist character, and its large segmental pediment, which rises against the second-storey pedestal, is supported on paired carved consoles. The northern, van, entrance, also flanked by pedestals and lamps, is comparatively plain, having a segmental arch of channeljointed voussoirs with a scrolled keystone below the pedestal-course. A sturdy iron railing protects the area between the entrances. The splay to the north-west corner contains the main entrance to the courts. It is flanked by the angle piers to the wings already described, and has a doorway like that of the police station, but with a straight entablature instead of a pediment. There is a pedimented three-light window at the second storey and above this a semi-circular arch with a solid tympanum carved with the royal arms. The spandrels are carved with Tudor roses in light relief. The parapet contains a panel with the date 1879. The Broad Court front is faced in white Suffolk bricks with Portland stone dressings. The windows and the magistrates' door have simple stone architraves. A central feature to the front is provided by a pedimented three-light window to the second storey. The elevations to Crown and Martlett Courts, like those to the internal quadrangle, are of stock brick and except for a length of red brick facing to Martlett Court, where the cell windows have eared stone architraves, are of utilitarian design.

The Builder stated that 'Dannett and Co.'s fireproof construction' was to be used for all the floors except a few where brick arches were necessary, and that 'Claridges Seysell asphalte' was to be applied to the floors of the cells, corridors and 'rooms requiring frequent washing'. It also stated: 'Internally, with the exception of the Courts and a few of the more important rooms on which some slight degree of ornamentation is bestowed, the building has been kept quite plain.' (fn. 62)

Telephone Exchange

This extension to the Russell Street telephone exchange is one of only two completely new buildings to have been erected in the area described in this volume since the war of 1939–45. It was begun in 1964 and opened in 1967. The designer was G. R. Yeats, then Senior Architect in the Ministry of Public Building and Works. (fn. 63) It is a reinforced-concrete framed building containing a basement and five lofty storeys (Plate 63c). The Bow Street front, with a recessed ground storey, is divided into four wide bays by five slender columns of square section, rising the full height of the building and faced externally with polished black composition slabs. The three central columns are partly concealed in the second storey by a projecting curtain wall of vertical concrete panels, finished with grey stone chippings, leaving a series of clerestory windows to light the interior. Each third-storey window has an apron of concrete panels, projecting and stopping short of the columns. The four-light windows fill the openings and have narrow return lights and, above a heavy transom, clerestory lights. The fourthstorey windows are similar to those of the third, each being surmounted by a narrow concrete fascia that forms the sill of the tall window above. Deep aprons of concrete panels, like those of the lower storeys, form the finish of the front.


Sacello dell'Ara dei Gemelli: (left) side showing Romulus and Remus and three shepherds (cast) (right) Museo Nazionale Romano: side showing amorini hauling the chariot of Mars (original)

In 1880 a fine marble altar was found in a small room situated at the south-western end of Piazzale delle Corporazioni. A similar, but empty, room was identified at the south-eastern end. The placing of the altar was approved by the decuriones, the highest magistrates of Ostia, in the IInd century AD. The reliefs suggest that at least initially the altar was dedicated to Mars, who according to tradition was the father of Romulus and Remus. Eventually it was dedicated to Silvanus, Roman god of woods and flocks.


New Discovery Puts Rome on the “Map”

Long before there were digital Google Maps, Rand McNally road atlases and Michelin fold out maps there was the Forma Urbis Romae, or Marble Plan, an extraordinary plan of every street and building existing in early third-century C.E. Rome. Incised on one hundred fifty marble slabs, the plan was sixty feet wide and forty-three feet high and hung on a wall of the Temple of Peace, now the east façade of the Basilica of Saints Cosmas and Damian on the Via dei Fori Imperiali. Created during the reign of Emperor Septimius Severus (r. 193-211 C.E.), the map was likely used as a decorative element in a building in which Rome’s land records were maintained but was so detailed that the first floor plan of every structure in the city could be identified. As with most of ancient Rome, the marble slabs came tumbling down and now only about fifteen percent of the original map survives in a jigsaw collection of over eleven hundred pieces.

East wall of Basilica of SS. Cosmas and Damian where Marble Plan attached and recreation of interior of Temple of Peace

Many of the broken fragments of the slabs were found in the sixteenth century in a then garden behind the church and were studied and copied in drawings before being used as bric brac fill in a wall for the Farnese garden along the Via Giulia. Occasionally, over the centuries since a few additional pieces would be discovered, and the surviving ones were briefly displayed at the beginning of the twentieth century in the Capitoline Museum before being relegated to storage. Nevertheless, the remaining parts of the Marble Plan have provided a hugely important tool for researchers on Roman topography as well as a source of inspiration for artists such as Piranesi who often included pieces of the Forma Urbis Romae in his prints.

G.B. Piranesi, Pianta di Roma, 1756

Recently, however, a new fragment turned up in excavations under the Palazzo Maffei Marescotti on the Via della Pigna in the area behind the Pantheon and is now on view through March 17 at the Museo dell’Ara Pacis. How the piece ended up so far from its original location is a mystery, but the area of its discovery was used during the Medieval period for burning broken marble in large kilns to be turned into lime for newer construction. Fortunately, this small piece of ancient Rome avoided the ovens.

Newly discovered fragment of Forma Urbis Romae (large piece in center)

The section discovered under the palazzo fills in an important missing piece of the map in the area of the Circus Flaminius, now the location of the Via del Portico d’Ottavia and for many centuries Rome’s Ghetto. This was the southern end of the Campus Martius, or Field of Mars, that was once outside of the city proper but by the time of the map’s creation was a vibrant and critical part of Rome’s urban fabric. More likely a public gathering space and market area rather than a “circus” for games such as the Circus Maximus, the Circus Flaminius was flanked by beautiful porticos behind which were temples to Jupiter the Stayer, Juno the Queen and Hercules of the Muses. Triumphal parades for Rome’s greatest generals such as Pompey likely formed up in this area before wending their way through the city gates to the applause and shouts of the crowds. Next to the later constructed Theater of Marcellus, the Circus Flaminius was confined on the southeast side by the massive structure as well as by two more temples to Apollo and Bellona, the ruins of which are still visible. As one scholar, Diane Favro, has noted, the construction of the theater probably forced triumphal parades to move through the theater arcades to fit in the tight space.

Looking southeast from the “Circus Flaminius” with Theater of Marcellus on right and Temple of Apollo in background

The newly found fragment suggests that by the time of the Severans the space was trimmed even further with structures that opened in the direction of the theater and may have related to the theater as storage or shops for theatergoers. Those buildings would appear to be in the area of Rome’s main synagogue as shown below. The find will add critical information to our snapshot of Rome at the height of the empire and its public display, albeit short, provides a rare opportunity to see a broken but important “piece” of it and should not be missed.

Overlay of drawings of Marble Plan from E. Rodriguez Almeida, Forma Urbis Marmorea (Edizione Quasar 1981) and newly found piece on Google Earth


The founder of the Roman Empire, emperor Augustus Caesar, filled Rome with monuments recalling his victories. Among the many architectural landmarks built, one of the most significant monuments still standing in Rome is the Mausoleum of Augustus. This architectural landmark used to be one of the most beloved and enduring icons of the city, not to mention the largest circular tomb monument in the world, with a diameter of 87 meters.

I found Rome a city of bricks and left it a city of marble.

– Augustus Caesar

Built in 28 BC as the first dynastic sepulchre in Rome, this tomb is one of the most well-known monuments in the Roman Empire and worldwide. So much so that after 80 years of being closed, the Italian telecommunications company TIM has donated €8 million to restore the Mausoleum.

We’re happy to announce that from March 1st 2021, the Mausoleum of August has reopened again! Visits of the Mausoleum last around 50 minutes and take place from Monday to Friday from 9am till 4pm. Till April 21st visits to the Mausoleum will be free of charge for everyone while from April 22nd till the end of 2021, visits to the Mausoleum will be free of charge for all residents of Rome.

The museum complex itinerary tells the history of the Mausoleum, divided into different historic periods. From 22 April 2021visits to the Mausoleum will be enriched with digital content, virtual and augmented reality, in collaboration with Fondazione TIM.

History of the Mausoleum of Augustus

The Mausoleum of Augustus was the first of many significant building projects undertaken during the reign of Rome’s first emperor. Built in 28 BC, t he mausoleum of Augustus is the funerary monument of Gaius Octavius, the emperor who, with the victory of Actium, put an end to the era of civil wars in Rome and consolidated the Roman Empire. Octavian began construction in the Campus Martius in 28 BC, a few years after the end of the war against Antony and the conquest of Egypt. The construction was inspired by the Hellenistic-style tomb of Alexander the Great, also with a circular plan, and the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus (modern Bodrum), built around 350 BC. in honor of King Mausolus. The Mausoleum of Augustus was the most immense tomb in the Roman world, a gigantic white construction surrounded by trees and with a bronze statue of Augustus at the top. But what led to its abandonment over the eras?

“Use technology to travel with your imagination.

– TIM Fondazione.

The Mausoleum of Augustus was used as a burial site for the relatives and descendants of Augustus for only one century, up until the later emperors abandoned it and started building tombs of their own. In 410 A.D. during the siege of the Goths, the tomb was deprived of its most precious objects, and with the fall of the Roman Empire, the Mausoleum became a church and later, the Colonna family had the Mausoleum fortified and turned into a castle-fortress. Unfortunately it was then sacked and its statutes, materials and marbles were reused to build other monuments and buildings.

The Mausoleum kept on changing ownership and purpose, from an Italian style garden to an amphitheatre for bullfights, from theatre to the most famous music hall in Europe. Up until during the Fascist period, Mussolini decided to restore the monument. The restoration project was divided into various phases, the first of which included demolishing the buildings that had been erected on top of the Mausoleum over the centuries. With the break out of the Second World War, the restoration works were interrupted. The tomb was closed to the public until in 2007, new archeological excavations were made and in 2016 a new restoration project began, with the objective of giving this stunning monument its deserved place in Rome’s historic center.

The Restoration Project

Once the conservative restoration phase of the Mausoleum was completed in 2019, carried out through a public funding of €4,275,000 (2 million paid by Mibact and €2,275,000 by Roma Capitale), the enhancement phase of the monument is currently underway thanks to the allocation of €8 million funded by the TIM Foundation.

The restoration project was divided into two phases: the consolidation of existing structures to make them safe and accessible, and the enhancement that allowed a new use for the installation. To consolidate the structure, reconstructions were needed to prevent any new damage or collapse. The first task was to transfer 153 ancient archaeological remains. Once the project was completed, they returned to the Mausoleum. The cleaning, filling, and shielding has made it possible to get rid of the vegetation that had taken root on the walls. And to stop future water penetration inside the masonry, the buildings’ surface was coated with a thick protective barrier. A shield against rain has also been installed.

Not to be missed

Visiting the Mausoleum of Augustus allows you to take a journey through time. While it isn’t easy to identify the single eras contained in the fascinating monument, the variety of historical traces belonging to different time periods encountered in the maze of rooms, stairs and corridors is truly surprising. The most interesting element of the Mausoleum is surely the burial chamber that housed the urns with the ashes of the relatives of Augustus.

In this chamber, where around 2000 years ago we would’ve walked on a floor of travertine slabs, the Emperor’s urn was most probably located in the central cylinder, which corresponds to the statue at the top. The only remains we see today are those of the urn of Octavia, Augustus’s sister – you can still see the traces of the pickaxes used while attempting to destroy it in the Middle Ages.

An unusual view of Piazza Augusto Imperatore

The visit to the Mausoleum also allows you to admire Piazza Augusto Imperatore from an unusual point of view, from the Ara Pacis. This square, with its three INPS buildings, the church of San Rocco and that of San Carlo al Corso, is destined to become a large public space which, in 2022, will host the first Bulgari Hotel in Rome.

Who was Augustus Caesar?

Augustus Caesar (Gaius Octavian – original name) was the first Roman Emperor, successor of Julius Caesar and one of the most significant administrative geniuses in history. The immense reorganization work he carried out transformed the collapsing republic into a modern, monarchic regime.

Augustus transformed the Roman people into builders of a glorious Empire. The Emperor gave the city important monuments and remarkable reconstructions. He wanted them to remain at the Roman people’s disposal, such as the Theatre of Marcellus, the Pantheon, the Ara Pacis solar clock on-campus Martius, the Temples of Jupiter, and the Temples of Apollo.

Rome gradually became an empire where there was an appreciation for art, theatre, poetry, architecture, and cultural activities. Not only was the Mausoleum converted into a concert hall, bull-fighting arena, and circus acts in the late 19th and early 20th-century, but it was most notably a burial site for Augustus’ family.

The original purpose of the Mausoleum was to retain relatives of this family. Those buried within it included the nephew of Augustus, Marcellus (died 23 BCE), his son-in-law, Marcus Agrippa (12 BCE), Drusus, the Elder (9 BCE), the two sons of Augustus, Lucius and Gaius Caesar (2 and 4 CE), and the Emperor himself in 14 CE. A long line of associations and spouses followed, including Drusus the Younger, Livia, Tiberius, Agrippina, Nero, Drusus (Caligula’s brother), Poppaea, and Nerva.

How to visit the Mausoleum of Augustus

You can visit the Mausoleum of Augustus by booking and purchasing your ticket on the official website. Due to Covid-19 restrictions, there is limited access to the Mausoleum – a maximum of 10 people can access the monument every hour. Till 21 April 2021 all visitors will have free entry to the Mausoleum, while from 22 April to 31 December 2021 the ticket will be free only for residents of Rome. From 22 April 2021, the visits to the Mausoleum will be enriched with digital content, virtual and augmented reality, in collaboration with Fondazione TIM.


A Fake Dome

Have you noticed something strange on the ceiling? You are right:)! There is no dome in the church. There is only painting on a flat ceiling. You have to go a little further towards the altar and get to another sign on the floor. It marks the point for the ideal observation of this masterpiece. It gives you the feeling like there was a normal dome. When you get closer to it, you will see that the perspective of the painting is changing. Once you stand right under it you will see it betterè and we are sure you will be quite surprised how perfectly they did this artwork! They didn’t build the dome probably due to the economic situation.

Campus Martius is a beautiful district also for romantic walks in the evenings. Of course, there is not only the Church of St. Ignatius of Loyola. You can see here many other beautiful churches and historical palaces in this area. When walking down the streets you can listen to some of the street musicians here or buy some souvenirs for your family and friends. You can also visit one of the many Italian restaurants here and have delicious pasta or pizza. Ask our guides on the tour for the best ice cream in this zone! Be sure, they will recommend you some good spots here:)!


Vaata videot: Theatre of Marcellus, Rome HD (Juuni 2022).


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