Uudised

Kuidas aitas Hershey šokolaad II maailmasõja ajal liitlasvägesid

Kuidas aitas Hershey šokolaad II maailmasõja ajal liitlasvägesid


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

See on üks Teise maailmasõja kuulsamaid saavutusi: 6. juunil 1944 tungis D-päeva sissetungi ajal Normandia randadesse üle 160 000 sõduri. Vähem on teada, et ebatõenäoline suupiste aitas liitlasi enne ajaloolist missiooni, Hershey šokolaaditahvlite ajal ja pärast seda.

1937. aastal pöördus USA armee Hershey Company poole, et luua spetsiaalne baar, mis oleks mõeldud ainult hädaabiks. Hershey peakemiku Sam Hinkle sõnul oli USA valitsusel oma uute šokolaaditahvlite kohta vaid neli taotlust: nad pidid kaaluma 4 untsi, olema kõrge energiaga, taluma kõrgeid temperatuure ja "maitsma veidi paremini kui keedetud kartul". Armee ei tahtnud, et baar oleks nii maitsev, et sõdurid seda hädaolukordades ära sööksid.

Lõpptoote nimi oli „D -ratsioonibaar”, šokolaadi, suhkru, kakaovõi, lõssipulbri ja kaerajahu segu. Viskoosne segu osutus liiga paksuks, et liikuda läbi tavalise šokolaaditahvlite tootmise, mis Hershey tehases üles seati, nii et esialgu tuli iga tahvlit käsitsi oma 4-untsisesse vormi pakkida.

LOE LISAKS: Kuidas liitlasväed katastroofilistest maandumistest natside ründamiseks üle said

Mis puutub maitsesse, siis enamik - kes seda proovis - ütles, et oleks pigem keedetud kartulit söönud.

Rasva- ja kaerajahu kombinatsioon muutis šokolaaditahvli tihedaks telliseks ning suhkur ei aidanud eriti tumeda šokolaadi ülekaalukalt mõrkjat maitset. Kuna see oli mõeldud taluma kõrgeid temperatuure, oli latti peaaegu võimatu hammustada. Enamik mehi, kes seda sõid, pidid viilud noaga maha raseerima, enne kui nad seda närida said.

Hoolimata USA armee parimatest jõupingutustest meestel seda takistada, sattusid mõned D ratsioonibaarid prügikasti. Hiljem sõjas tutvustas Hershey uut versiooni, mida tuntakse kui troopilist baari, mis on spetsiaalselt ette nähtud Vaikse ookeani teatri äärmuslike temperatuuride jaoks. Sõja lõpuks oli ettevõte tootnud üle 3 miljardi ratsioonibaari.

Baar oli vaevalt ainus magus D-päeva ratsioonides. Suhkur oli lihtne viis vägede ülesehitamiseks ja kiire energiapuhang pakkus komplekti kottidele teretulnud lisa. Koos D -ratsioonidega said väed kolme päeva väärtuses K -annust. Need olid mõeldud pigem toidukorra asendajateks, mitte toidulisanditeks nagu D -ratsioonid, ning need olid koos kohvi, lihakonservide, sulatatud juustu ja tonni suhkrut. Sõja erinevates kohtades võisid mehed leida pulbristatud apelsini- või sidrunijooki, karamelle, närimiskummi ja - muidugi - rohkem šokolaadi.

Lisaks šokolaadile valmistas Hershey ka mereväe õhutõrjekahurite osi. Ja ettevõte ei olnud ajastu ainus toidutitaan, kes liitus üleriigiliste jõupingutustega Ameerika vägede toetamiseks. Heinz lõi isekuumenevad purgid, mida sai sigaretiga süüdata, Kelloggi tarnitud K-Rations sõdurite hommikusöögiks.

LOE LISAKS: Hershey surus kord vägivaldselt šokolaaditöötajate streigi


Milton S. Hershey

Milton Snavely Hershey (13. september 1857 - 13. oktoober 1945) oli Ameerika šokolaadimees, ärimees ja filantroop.

Kondiitritööstuses koolitatud Hershey oli teerajaja karamelli valmistamisel, kasutades värsket piima. Ta käivitas ettevõtte Lancaster Caramel Company, mis saavutas hulgiekspordi, ja seejärel müüs selle, et asutada uus ettevõte, mis varustaks masstootmisega piimašokolaadi, mis oli varem luksuskaup.

Esimesed Hershey baarid müüdi 1900. aastal ja osutusid nii populaarseks, et ta suutis rajada oma firma linna Hershey, Pennsylvania. Hershey heategevus laienes internaatkoolile, mis oli algselt mõeldud kohalikele orbudele, kuid mahutas 2016. aasta seisuga umbes 2000 õpilast. [1] Teises maailmasõjas töötas ettevõte välja spetsiaalse sulamisteta lati välismaal teenivatele vägedele. Hershey Company, tuntud kui Hershey's, on üks maailma suurimaid kondiitritootjaid.


Šokolaadid olid järelmõte

Tänapäeval on Hershey šokolaadi sünonüüm. See ei olnud aga alati nii-Milton Hershey esimene suur komme tegemine oli karamellimaailmas.

Vastavalt Hershey kogukonna arhiiv, Hershey ebaõnnestus kaks korda enne Lancaster Caramel Company avamist 1886. aastal. Kuigi kolmas katse oli lõpuks võlu, jõudis ettevõte peaaegu täieliku läbikukkumiseni.

Hershey oli pärast eelnevaid ebaõnnestumisi halva krediidiga ja ka tema karamellifirma oli tõsises ebaõnnestumise ohus. Pangakassapidaja tuli appi, kirjutades ise laenu alla, andes Hersheyle sularaha, mida ta vajas toorainepartii jaoks, mis hoiaks ettevõtte käimas. See hakkas kasvama ja 1892. aastaks ostis ta konkurentide rajatisi. Hershey karamellid valmistati parimatest imporditud koostisosadest ja lõpuks sisaldasid need tooteid nimega Paradox, Empire, Icelts, Jim Crack ja Roly Poly. Tema osalemine karamellides oli lõpuks lühiajaline, kuid kasumlik-ta müüs karamelliäri 1900. aastal miljoni dollari eest. Tänapäeva rahas on see peaaegu 30 miljonit dollarit.


Hershey ’s Field Ration D batoonid ei sulanud kuumuses ja maitsesid lihtsalt veidi paremini kui keedetud kartul

Suure energiatarbega šokolaaditahvlit kasutasid sõdurid ja see muudeti maitsva asemel maitsvaks, nii et sõdurid seda maiuspalana ei kasutaks.

Kõik sai alguse 1937. aastal, kui kapten Paul Logan nõudis langevarjuritele nende pika väljapaigutamise ajal kergeid väljaandeid. Toit pidi olema hävimatu, taskusuurune, kuumuskindel ja väga toitev.

Ta arvas, et see võib lihtsalt asja ära teha, ja pöördus Hershey ’s poole ülima sõjalise šokolaaditahvli järele.

Hershey ’s osalemine selles olulises projektis algas aprillis 1937, kui kapten Paul Logan kohtus Hershey ’s Chocolate presidendi William Murrie ja Hershey ’s peakemiku Sam Hinklega. Mehed organiseerisid ja otsustasid katsetada šokolaaditahvli tootmist, mis vastaks USA sõduri toitumisvajadustele.

Hershey šokolaadivabrik Hersheys, Pennsylvania, 1976. Photo Credit

Nõuded šokolaaditahvlile olid lihtsad. Kapten Logani idee ei olnud teha neid liiga maitsvaks, nii et sõdurid kasutaksid neid ainult hädaolukordadeks. Maitse oli väidetavalt nagu midagi, mis oli mõeldud vannide jaoks, ja see pidi maitsma “a veidi paremini kui keedetud kartul.

Sellegipoolest kompenseeris kommibatooni kõrge toitumine kohutava maitse. Baaril oli vaja ka kaaluda neli untsi ja taluda kõrbemissioonide ajal kõrgeid temperatuure.

Murrie ja Hinkle rääkisid kiiresti intrigeerivast armeeprojektist Milton Hersheyle, kes on Hershey ’s taga. Ta oli sellest väga huvitatud ja käskis neil alustada planeerimisest ja tootmisest.

Hersheyle tegi nalja asjaolu, et kommid pidid olema mitte liiga maitsvad, mitte kunagi varem tehtud kommitootmine.

USA sõjaväeline C-raadio koos fudge-ribaga (vasakul vasakul).

Tehnoloogid pakkusid “Field Ration D ” batoonidele šokolaaditahvli, mis vastas kõigile kapten Logani nõuetele. Kangid stabiliseeriti kaerajahu, kakaorasva, lõssipulbri, suhkru ja kunstlike lõhna- ja maitseainetega.

Nad ei sulanud tegelikult suus: selle asemel oli neil õigus sõduri hambaid murda. Isegi šokolaaditahvli siseküljed ei maitsenud hästi.

D-ratsioonibaarid olid nii täis kakaod, eemaletõukav kibedus oli USA sõduri ja#8217 maitsemeelte jaoks gurmeepiinamine.

Lisaks nimetasid sõdurid naljaga pooleks baari “Hitler ’s salarelvaks ” tänu šokolaadi mõjule sõduritele ja seedesüsteemile.

Valik USA sõjaväe C-ratsioonipurke Teisest maailmasõjast koos kuvatavate esemetega. Fotokrediit

Võib -olla jõudsid vägede kaebused Hershey kõrvu ning nad sõnastasid ümber šokolaadibaari maitse ja tekstuuri. Nii sündis Hershey ’s Tropical Chocolate Bar vastusena USA sõdurite ebasoodsatele arvustustele. See oli veidi maitsvam ja aitas USA armeel head võitlust võidelda.

Maineka armee-mereväe ja#8220E ” tootmispreemia pälvis 22. augustil 1942 Hershey ’s Chocolate Corporation ülima sõjalise šokolaadi ja silmapaistva sõjategevuse eest.

See polnud kindlasti kergelt võidetav auhind. Kindralmajor Edmund B. Gregory kiitis Hershey ’s: “Hershey Chocolate Corporationi meestel ja naistel on põhjust olla uhked oma suurepärase töö üle meie sõdurite toetamisel võitlusrindel. ”

Armee-mereväe ja#8220E ” auhind. See oli au, mis anti II maailmasõja ajal ettevõtetele ja tehastele “Ecellence in Production ” eest, kui tehased varustavad sõjaväge kvaliteetse sõjavarustusega. See loodi sõjamaterjalide tootmise soodustamiseks.

Sõjaväelaste kommiplatsi edu oli näha, sest igal nädalal toodeti ligikaudu 24 miljonit kangi. Sõja lõpus tootis Hershey’s rohkem kui 3 miljardit „Field Ration D” baari, mis aitasid kaasa Ameerika geograafiliste tähiste aitamisele. Sõdurid ei sööks alati ebameeldivaid baare.

Nagu selgub, kasutasid nad neid parema maitsega toidu vahetamiseks pahaaimamatute tsiviilisikutega, kes polnud šokolaadi mõru maitsega tuttavad.

Sõdurid ei sööks alati ebameeldivaid baare. Nagu selgub, kasutasid nad neid parema maitsega toidu vahetamiseks pahaaimamatute tsiviilisikutega, kes polnud šokolaadi mõru maitsega tuttavad.


Sisu

Algusaastad Muuda

Pärast õpinguid kondiitri juures 1873. aastal avas Milton S. Hershey Philadelphias kommipoe. See pood oli avatud kuus aastat, pärast seda õppis Hershey koos teise kondiitriga Denveris, kus ta õppis karamelli valmistama. [12] Pärast järjekordset ebaõnnestunud ärikatseid New Yorgis naasis Hershey Pennsylvaniasse, kus asutas 1886. aastal ettevõtte Lancaster Caramel. Värske piima kasutamine karamellides osutus edukaks, [13] ja 1900. aastal pärast šokolaadivalmistusmasinate nägemist. 1893. aastal Chicagos toimunud maailmanäitusel Chicagos müüs Hershey oma karamellifirma 1 000 000 dollari eest [13] (võrdub täna 31 108 000 dollariga) ja keskendus šokolaadile. Inimestele, kes teda küsitlesid, ütles ta: "Karamellid on lihtsalt moehullus, kuid šokolaad on püsiv asi."

Aastal 1896 ehitas Hershey piimatöötlemistehase, et saaks luua ja täiustada oma piimašokolaadikommide retsepti. Aastal 1899 töötas ta välja Hershey protsessi, mis on piima kvaliteedi suhtes vähem tundlik kui traditsioonilised meetodid. Aastal 1900 alustas ta Hershey piimakokolaaditahvlite tootmist, mida tuntakse ka kui Hershey's Bars või Hershey Bars.

Hershey, Pennsylvania Muuda

Aastal 1903 alustas Hershey šokolaaditehase ehitamist oma kodulinna Derry kirikusse, Pennsylvaniasse, hiljem tuntud kui Hershey, Pennsylvania. [13] Linn oli tööliste ja nende perede jaoks odav koht elamiseks, kuigi tehas ehitati ilma akendeta, et töötajad ei segaks. Töötajate moraali suurendamiseks pakkus Hershey vaba aja veetmise võimalusi ja lõi hiljem Hersheyparki. Selle taime piimašokolaaditahvlid osutusid populaarseks ja ettevõte kasvas kiiresti.

Hershey suudlused Muuda

Aastal 1907 tutvustas ta uut kommi: hammustussuurused lamedapõhjalised koonilised šokolaaditükid, millele ta pani nimeks "Hershey's Kiss". Alguses pakiti igaüks käsitsi alumiiniumfooliumi ruutu. Masinate pakkimise kasutuselevõtt 1921. aastal kiirendas protsessi ja lisas paki ülaosale väikese paberlindi, mis näitas, et tegemist on ehtsa Hershey tootega. [13] Tänapäeval toodetakse iga päev 70 miljonit kommi. [14] Teiste tutvustatud toodete hulka kuulusid härra Goodbar (1925) (maapähklid piimašokolaadis), Hershey's siirup (1926), poolmagusad šokolaaditükid (1928) ja krõbeda riisiga baar Krackel (1938).

Reese maapähklivõi tassid Muuda

Harry Burnett Reese leiutas Reese maapähklivõi tassid pärast H.B. Reese Candy Company aastal 1923. [15] Reese suri 16. mail 1956 Floridas West Palm Beachis, jättes seltskonna oma kuuele pojale. [16] 2. juulil 1963 toimus H.B. Reese Candy Company ühines Hershey Chocolate Corporationiga maksuvaba aktsia-aktsia ühinemisel. 2020. aastal, pärast 57 -aastast aktsiate jagunemist, [17] esindasid Reese perekonna poolt saadud esialgsed 666 316 Hershey lihtaktsiat 16 miljonit Hershey aktsiat, mille väärtus oli 2,5 miljardit dollarit, makstes 51,4 miljonit dollarit aastas. [18] [19] 1969. aastal, vaid 6 aastat pärast Reese/Hershey ühinemist, sai Reese maapähklivõi tassidest The Hershey Company enimmüüdud. [20] 20. septembri 2012. aasta seisuga oli Reese’s Ameerika Ühendriikides enimmüüdud kommibränd, mille müügitulu oli 2,603 ​​miljardit dollarit, ning ülemaailmselt neljanda suurima müügiga 2,679 miljardi dollari suurune kaubamärk. Ainult 76 miljonit dollarit (2,8%) müügist on väljaspool Ameerika Ühendriike. [21]

Liitmine Muuda

Rahutused tulid Hersheysse 1930ndate lõpus, kui tööstusorganisatsioonide kongressi toetatud ametiühing üritas tehase töötajaid organiseerida. Ebaõnnestunud istumisstreik 1937. aastal lõppes vägivallaga lojaalsete tööliste poolt ja kohalikud piimatootjad peksid paljusid streikijaid, kui nad üritasid tehasest lahkuda. 1940. aastaks oli Ameerika Tööliidu sidusettevõte edukalt korraldanud Hershey töölised John Sheareri juhtimisel, kellest sai pagari-, kondiitri-, tubakatöötajate ja teraviljajahutajate rahvusvahelise liidu kohaliku peatüki number 464 esimene president. Kohalik 464 esindab endiselt Hershey tööjõudu.

M & ampM's Edit

Veidi enne II maailmasõda, Bruce Murrie, Hershey kauaaegse presidendi William F.R. Murrie sõlmis lepingu Forrest Marsiga, et luua kõva suhkruga kaetud šokolaad, mida kutsutaks M & ampM's (Marsi ja Murrie jaoks). Murrie oli 20% huvitatud tootest, mis kasutas Hershey šokolaadi Teise maailmasõja ajal. 1948. aastal ostis Mars Murrie välja ja temast sai üks Hershey peamisi konkurente. [22]

Kit Kat ja Rolo Edit

1969. aastal sai Hershey Rowntree litsentsi Kit Kat ja Rolo tootmiseks ja turustamiseks Ameerika Ühendriikides. Pärast seda, kui Hershey konkurent Nestlé omandas Rowntree oma 1988. aastal, pidi see lepingut järgima ja seega jätkab Hershey toodete tootmist ja turustamist USA -s. Hershey müügi korral läheb litsents tagasi Nestléle. [23] Sellest sai kimbatus Hershey ebaõnnestunud katses meelitada tõsist ostjat 2002. aastal ning isegi Nestlé lükkas Hershey küsitava hinna tagasi, tundes, et majandus ei tööta. [24]

Cadbury redigeerimine

1988. aastal omandas Hershey's Ameerika Ühendriikides õiguse toota ja levitada paljusid Cadbury kaubamärgiga tooteid (välja arvatud näts ja mündid, mis kuuluvad Mondelēz Internationali). 2015. aastal kaebasid nad Briti maaletooja kohtusse, et peatada Briti Cadbury šokolaadi import, mis väidetavalt vihastas tarbijaid. [25] [26] Kaaluti Mondelēz ja Hershey's ühinemist, kuid see loobuti 2016. aastal pärast seda, kui Hershey lükkas tagasi 23 miljardi dollari suuruse sularahapakkumise. [27]

Muud 20. sajandi müügid ja omandamised Muuda

1977. aastal omandas Hershey 1845. aastal asutatud Y & ampS Candies ja temast said Twizzlersi lagritsakommide valmistajad.

1986. aastal tegi Hershey's lühikese katse köha tilkade vastu, kui omandas Ludeni köhatilkade kaubamärgi. 2001. aastaks oli kaubamärk aga müüdud Pharmaciale (nüüd Pfizeri osa) [28] ja Luden sai lõpuks Prestige Brandsi tooteks. [29] Hershey's hoidis Ludeni viienda avenüü baari.

1996. aastal ostis Hershey Huhtamäelt Leaf Candy Company Ameerika tegevuse.

1999. aastal loovutati Hershey Pasta Group mitmetele aktsiapartneritele, et moodustada New World Pasta ettevõte (nüüd Ebro Foodsi osa).

21. sajandi muutmine

25. juulil 2002 sai teatavaks, et Hershey Trust Company soovib müüa oma kontrollosaluse Hershey Foods Corporationis. Hershey aktsia väärtus tõusis ühe päevaga 25% ja sellega kaubeldi üle 19 miljoni aktsia. Järgneva 55 päeva jooksul põhjustas müügist loobumine laialdane kajastus ajakirjanduses, aga ka Pennsylvania peaprokuröri Mike Fisheri, Hershey kogukonna ja Dauphini maakonna orvukohtu vanemkohtuniku Warren G. Morgani surve. Peaprokurör Fisher ja kohtunik Morgan kõrvaldasid need seitse Hershey usaldusisikut, kes hääletasid 17. septembril 2002 Hershey Foodsi 12,5 miljardi USA dollari eest William Wrigley Jr. Companyle (praegu Mars Incorporated osaks) müümiseks. [30] 17 usaldusisikust kümme olid sunnitud tagasi astuma ja määrati neli uut kohapeal elanud liiget. Milton Hershey kooli usaldusisikute uueks esimeheks sai endine Pennsylvania peaprokurör LeRoy S. Zimmerman. Hr Zimmerman on avalikult võtnud kohustuse, et Milton Hershey School Trust säilitaks alati oma huvi The Hershey Company vastu.

2005. aastal asutas Krave Jerky Jon Sebastiani pärast seda, kui ta treenis maratoniks ja otsis tervislikku energiaallikat. [32] 2012. aastal investeeris Krave Jerky'sse erakapitali grupp Alliance Consumer Growth. [33] Hershey ostis ettevõtte 2015. aastal 240 miljoni dollari eest. [34] Hershey müüb hiljem 2020. aastal Krave Jerky Sonast Brandsile, 2016. aastal Sebastiani asutatud toiduainetööstuse inkubaatorile. [35]

2005. aasta juulis omandas Hershey Californias asuva Berkeley boutique-šokolaaditootja Scharffen Bergeri. [36] 2005. aasta novembris omandas Hershey San Franciscos asuva šokolaadimehe Joseph Schmidt Confections ja 2006. aasta novembris ostis Hershey Oregoni osariigis Ashlandis asuva butiigi šokolaaditootja Dagoba Organic Chocolate.

2006. aasta juunis kutsus Philadelphia linnavolikogu liige Juan Ramos üles Hersheyl lõpetama omamoodi piparmündi "Ice Breakers Pacs" turustamise, kuna selle pakend sarnaneb ebaseaduslike tänavaravimite jaoks kasutatava pakendiga. [37]

2006. aasta septembris teatas ABC News, et mitmed Hershey šokolaaditooted on ümber sõnastatud, asendades kakaovõi emulgaatorina taimeõliga. Ettevõtte sõnul tehti see muudatus, et vähendada toodete tootmiskulusid, selle asemel, et tõsta nende hindu või vähendada suurusi. Mõned tarbijad kurtsid, et maitse on erinev, kuid ettevõte väitis, et ettevõtte sponsoreeritud pimedate maitsekatsete puhul eelistasid umbes pooled tarbijad uusi versioone. Kuna uued versioonid ei vastanud enam Toidu- ja Ravimiameti ametlikule „piimašokolaadi” määratlusele, märgiti muudetud esemed ümber, märkides, et need on „piimašokolaad” ja „valmistatud šokolaadiga”, „šokolaadikommid” ja „šokolaadised”. [38]

Detsembris 2011 jõudis Hershey kokkuleppele Brookside Foods Ltd., Brookside Foods Ltd., eraomandis oleva maiustuste ettevõtte, mis asub Briti Columbias Abbotsfordis, omandamiseks. [39]

2015. aasta aprillis lammutati Hershey šokolaaditehas Hershey Pennsylvania osariigis East Chocolate Avenue'l, et teha teed segakasutuseks. [40]

2016. aastal omandas Hershey New Yorgis asuva šokolaadisuupistete ettevõtte barkTHINS, mis eeldas selle aasta tulusid 290 miljoni dollari eest 65–75 miljoni dollari ulatuses. [41] [34]

2016. aasta augustis tehtud katse müüa Hershey Mondelez Internationalile loobuti Hershey Trusti vastuväidete tõttu. [23]

2017. aastal omandas Hershey SkinnyPopi Texases asuva Austini ettevõtte Amplify Snack Brands sularahatehingu väärtuses ligikaudu 1,6 miljardit dollarit. [42]

2018. aasta septembris teatas Hershey, et ostab B & ampG Foodsilt piraatbrändid 420 miljoni dollari eest sularahas. [43] [44] [45]

2019. aasta augustis teatas Hershey, et ostab 397 miljoni dollari eest valgubatoonide tootja One Brands LLC. [46]

Oktoobris 2019 teatas Hershey's koostööst Yuenglingiga, et toota piiratud väljalaskega koostööõlu nimega Yuengling Hershey's Chocolate Porter, saades Hershey esimesest litsentseeritud õllepartnerlusest. [47]

Kuna tal ei olnud võimalik lapsi saada, asutas Milton S. Hershey 1909. aastal valgete orvuks jäänud poiste jaoks Hershey tööstuskooli. [48] ​​1918. aastal, kolm aastat pärast naise surma, annetas Milton Hershey usaldusisikule internaatkoolile umbes 90 miljonit dollarit, samuti 40% Hershey Company aktsiatest. [49] Kooli esialgne eesmärk oli koolitada noori mehi kaubanduses, kuid lõpuks keskendus see kõrgkooli ettevalmistamisele. [49] Hershey Trust Company on kasutanud kooli hääleõigust ja olnud usaldusisik alates selle asutamisest. [50]

Paljud selle disainilahendused sarnanevad Hershey šokolaaditoodetega, näiteks tänavavalgustid Hershey Kisses. [51] Milton Hershey osales kooli tegevuses kuni oma surmani 1945. aastal. Hershey tööstuskool nimetati 1951. aastal ümber Milton Hershey kooliks. [52]

Esimene tehas väljaspool Hersheyt avati 15. juunil 1963 Smiths Fallsis Ontarios ja kolmas avati 22. mail 1965 Oakdale'is Californias. [53] Veebruaris ja aprillis 2007 teatas Hershey's, et Smiths Falls [54] [55] ja Oakdale [56] [57] tehased suletakse 2008. aastal, osaliselt asendatakse see uue rajatisega Monterreys, Mehhikos. Oakdale'i tehas suleti 1. veebruaril 2008. [58] 2002. aasta augustis avati Brasiilias São Roque'is asuv Hershey šokolaadivabrik. Hershey Aasia tegevust varustab suures osas nende tehas Mandideepis, Indias. [2]

Hershey külastajad saavad kogeda Hershey's Chocolate Worldi külastuskeskust ja selle simuleeritud ekskursiooni. Kunagi korraldati avalikke ekskursioone Pennsylvania ja California tehastes, mis lõppesid Pennsylvanias 1973. aastal kohe pärast Hershey šokolaadimaailma avamist, [59] ja hiljem Californias pärast 11. septembri 2001. aasta rünnakuid turvalisuse tõttu. [57]

18. septembril 2012 avas Hershey uue ja laiendatud West Hershey tehase. Tehas valmis 300 miljoni dollari eelarvega. [60]

9. märtsil 2018 murdis Hershey teed, et laiendada oma Kit Kati tootmisüksust Hazle Townshipis, Pennsylvanias. Laienemisprojekti eelarve on 60 miljonit dollarit ja eeldatavasti luuakse sellesse rajatis täiendavalt 111 töökohta. [61]

  • 1998. aasta juulis kutsuti tagasi 100 g (3,5 untsi) piimašokolaaditahvleid, mida müüdi raha kogumiseks, sest need võisid sisaldada koostisosades loetlemata mandlijälgi. [62]
  • 2006. aasta novembris suleti Ontarios asuv Smiths Fallsi tehas ajutiselt ja mitmed tooted kutsuti vabatahtlikult tagasi pärast muret Salmonella nende tootmisliinil võib leiduda sojaletsitiini. Usuti, et enamik tagasivõtmisega seotud tooteid ei jõudnud kunagi jaemüügi tasemele. [63] [64]

Hershey on andnud suure panuse haridusse. Üks nende tähelepanuväärsemaid panuseid oli Elizabethtowni kolledži autasude programm. [65] Programm loodi 1999. aastal ja seda rahastatakse osaliselt sihtkapitali kaudu.

2015. aastal teatas Hershey kohustusest osaleda Clintoni ülemaailmses algatuses, et aidata üles ehitada jätkusuutlik tarneahel, et toetada Ghana laste põhitoitu. [66]

Hershey pikaajaline keskendumine lastele ja peredele on andnud pikaajalise partnerluse selliste organisatsioonidega nagu Laste imede võrgustik, Ronald McDonald House ja United Way (UW). 2016. aastal annetas ettevõte nendele organisatsioonidele üle 486 200 dollari. [67]

Hersheyt on kritiseeritud selle eest, et tal puuduvad programmid, mis tagavad jätkusuutliku ja eetilise kakao ostmise, jäädes oma konkurentidest maha õiglase kaubanduse meetmetes. [68]

Saade "Tõstke latti üles, Hershey!" kampaania käivitasid 2010. aasta septembris Global Exchange, Green America, Oasis Trust ja Rahvusvaheline Tööõiguste Foorum. Kampaania „Tõsta baari” eesmärk oli survestada Hersheyt, et ta kohustuks „võtma viivitamata meetmeid, et kõrvaldada sunniviisiline ja lapstööjõud [.] Hershey kakaovarust” ”kuni 100% õiglase kaubanduse sertifikaadiga kakaoubade hankimiseni 2012. aastaks vähemalt ühe selle viie parima müügiga šokolaaditahvlit [.], mis teeb seejärel iga kahe aasta tagant vähemalt ühe täiendava viie parima müügibatooni 100% õiglase kaubanduse sertifikaadiga "ja et" enamik Hershey kakaod kõigis toodetes saab aastaks 2022 õiglase kaubanduse sertifikaadi ". Surve oli suunatud eelkõige Whole Foods Marketile, kes teatas 3. oktoobril 2012, et lõpetab Hershey Scharffen Bergeri liini vedamise. [69] Kampaania märkis: "Whole Foodsi otsus järgib enam kui 40 loodusliku toidu jaemüüjat ja koopiat, kes on avalikult väljendanud muret Scharffen Bergeri ja Dagoba toodete kandmise pärast, kuna hiiglasliku šokolaaditootja keeldus tegelemast oma tarneahelas lapstööjõuga". [69] Samal päeval teatas Hershey's, et "hangib 2020. aastaks 100 % sertifitseeritud kakaod oma ülemaailmsetele šokolaaditoodetele ja kiirendab oma programme, et aidata kõrvaldada lapstööjõudu Lääne -Aafrika kakaopiirkondades". [70]

Aastal 2019 teatas Hershey, et nad ei saa garanteerida, et nende šokolaaditooted on vabad orjatöötajatest, kuna nad suudavad jälgida vaid umbes 50% oma ostudest farmi tasemele. The Washington Post märkis, et 2001. aastal võetud kohustust likvideerida sellised tavad 4 aasta jooksul ei ole täidetud ei tähtaegselt 2005. aastal ega 2008. ja 2010. aasta muudetud tähtaegade jooksul ning tulemust ei saavuta tõenäoliselt ka 2020. aastaks . [71]

Aastal 2021 nimetati Hershey ühishagis kaheksa endist Mali lapsorja, kes väitsid, et ettevõte aitas kaasa nende orjastamisele Elevandiluuranniku kakaoistandustele. Kohtuasi süüdistas Hersheyt (koos Nestlé, Cargilli, Marsi, Incorporatedi, Olam Internationali, Barry Callebauti ja Mondelez Internationaliga) teadlikult sunnitööl osalemises ning hagejad taotlesid kahju hüvitamist alusetu rikastumise, hooletuse järelevalve ja emotsionaalse stressi tahtliku tekitamise eest. . [72]


Armastad juudi toitu? Liituge meie Nosheri retsepti uudiskirjaga!

Kui olete kunagi reisinud Iisraeli, külastanud kosheri supermarketit või teil on lihtsalt mõni Iisraeli nõbu, kes aeg-ajalt külastab, olete võib-olla kohanud eliitšokolaadi, Iisraeli ja rsquose esmaklassilist ja armastatud šokolaadifirmat. Mõelge neile nagu Hershey & rsquose Iisraeli versioon, millest on lahutatud teemapark (koos veidi maitsvamate pakkumistega).

Oleme siin The Nosheris üsna kinnisideeks Iisraeli šokolaadist ja asusime isegi vaevalisele ülesandele järjestama oma lemmik Iisraeli šokolaadi. Ja kes saab meid süüdistada ja isegi Gal Gadot ja Jimmy Fallon armastavad Iisraeli šokolaadi.

Kuid on võimatu läbi vaadata Iisraeli šokolaaditahvlite nimekirja, märkamata Elite domineerimist, millel on tegelikult põnev ajalugu.

Elite sai alguse 1920. aastatel Lätis, kui ettevõte kandis algselt nime & ldquoLaima, & rdquo, mis tähendab läti keeles õnne. 1930. aastateks eksportis Laima oma maiustusi muu hulgas Prantsusmaale, Ühendkuningriiki ja Egiptusesse. Kuid 1933. aastal, natside ja rsquo võimuletulekuga, kolis üks ettevõtte kolmest partnerist Eliahu Promchenko koos perega Iisraeli. Ja ta tõi endaga kaasa masinaid ja mis veelgi olulisem - maiustuste eksperte.

1934. aastal avas ettevõte Tel Avivi lähedal tehase. Teise maailmasõja ajal võitis Elite lepingu šokolaadi tarnimiseks Briti armeele ja piirkonnas paiknevatele liitlasvägedele. Promtšenko avas isegi Beirutis tehase ja poe, kuid suutis selle enne Iisraeli ja rsquose Vabadussõda 1948. aastal sulgeda. 1958. aastal hakkas Elite valmistama lahustuvat kohvi, mis on Iisraelis ja kogu maailmas koššermaastikul äratuntav kaubamärk.

1970ndatel ühines Elite teise maiustustehasega Liber, mis tähendas, et ettevõte müüs nüüd lemmikuid nagu Mekupelet šokolaaditahvlid, ikooniline Iisraeli kummimärk Alma ja sai isegi Bazooka kummi litsentseeritud müüjaks Iisraelis. 1997. aastal ostis Elite'i Strauss, mis on praegu Iisraeli suurim toiduainetööstus, ning see teeb & rsquos siiani Iisraeli ja rsquose kõige armastatumaks šokolaaditahvliks.

Näljas rohkem? Vaadake meie lühikest videot, kuid olge valmis šokolaadi isuks.


Berliini kommipommitaja

Raskuste, segaduste ja kaotuste ajal otsime headust, lootust ja rõõmu. Ja mõnikord leiame need viisil, mida me kunagi ei oota - nagu hetkedel, mida naudib šokolaaditahvli lahke žest.

Pärast Teise maailmasõja lõppu blokeerisid Vene väed liitlaste kontrolli piirkonnad Berliinis. Selle tulemusena lõigati kaks miljonit Saksamaa kodanikku toidust, söest ja ravimitest ära. Juurdepääs veele ja maale oli blokeeritud, jättes taeva ainsaks sissesõiduteeks.

See oli 1948. aasta juunis, kui kolonel Gail S. „Hal & quot; Halvorsen, USA õhujõudude piloot, kes teenis II maailmasõja ajal, määrati Berliini lennufirmasse, et toimetada berliinlastele väga vajalikku toitu, kütust ja tarvikuid. USA nimetas jõupingutusi operatsiooniks Vittles ja britid operatsiooniks Plainfare.

Ühel päeval märkas 27-aastane kolonel Halvorsen oma missiooni alguses gruppi saksa lapsi, kes kogunesid Berliini lennuvälja okastraataia juurde. Tavaline oli näha lapsi vägisi USA vägede tähelepanu pärast, sest nad soovisid sageli kommi ja maiustusi. Kuid see rühm ei otsinud maiuspala, need lapsed otsisid lootuse ja vabaduse märke.

Nad küsisid lennukite kohta ja kui palju varusid nad saaksid kaasas kanda. Nad tahtsid mõista oma seisundi põhjuseid ja rohkem teada saada, mida maailm nende abistamiseks teeb. Nähes, et neil pole midagi ja nad on näljased, pakkus kolonel Halvorsen kaks nätsu, mis tal oli. Ta eeldas, et nad küsivad rohkem, kuid lapsed olid lahke žesti eest tänulikud ja tahtsid lihtsalt Halvorseni lennukimissioonidest kuulda.

Soovides neile rohkem anda, andis Hal julge lubaduse. Ta lubas, et toob neile rohkem maiuseid, kui nad on nõus neid jagama. Aga maiuspalasid ta tarast läbi ei annaks - ta taevast kukutaks. Ta ütles neile, et nad teaksid, et see on tema õhus, sest ta liigutab lähenedes tiibu.

Hal ühendas oma kommiannused teiste teenistujatega, et taskurätikutest ja nöörist šokolaadist ja kummist langevarju teha. 18. juulil 1948 tõusis õhku operatsioon Little Vittles. Hal pidas neile lastele antud lubadust, kukutades taevast alla maiustuste langevarju. Allpool olevad lapsed rabelesid kommidega koormatud langevarju püüdma. Inimesed hakkasid teda nende kangelaslike heategude tõttu nimetama onu Wiggly Wingsiks ja Berliini kommipommitajaks.

Varsti jõudsid USA -sse uudised operatsioonist “Väikesed” Vittles (kommi langevarjutilkade erinimi), mis pani lapsed ja igasugused kommitootjad tegutsema, et missioonile kommi anda. Sealt edasi on ülejäänud ajalugu. Berlin Airlifti lõpuks septembris 1949 viskasid Ameerika piloodid Berliini lastele üle 250 000 langevarju ja 23 tonni kommi.

Kolonel Halvorsen mäletab: „kui tänulikud nad [lapsed] olid, kui taevasse vaatasid ja nägid langevarju, mille kohal olid lennukist üle pea tulemas värsked HERSHEY kommipulgad.

Imeline tunne oli saada sellist tuge The Hershey Companylt. ” Hal järeldab: "Väikestest asjadest, mida teete, saavad suured asjad."

Kolk Halvorsen jätkab oma armastust anda kaugel pensionist. The Gail S. Halvorsen Aviation Education Foundation was established in 2016 to help children gain a passion for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines while learning about the principles of attitude, gratitude, and service before self. After all, as Hal always says, it’s the little things that put you on the path of life, the small acts of kindness.


Several dozen miles from the Pennsylvania Capitol in Harrisburg, the town of Hershey pumps sweet chocolate smells from a 2-million-square-foot manufacturing plant. Street signs with cocoa-inspired names such as Chocolate, Java and Granada mark tree-lined avenues lit by lamps shaped like Hershey Kisses. Everything in this town of about 13,000 residents seems to reflect the Hershey's Chocolate Company that spawned it. To understand how an area once was home to little more than dairy farms was transformed into the headquarters of America's largest chocolate and confectionary maker, one must understand the man behind the transformation: Milton S. Hershey.

Hershey was not born with a clear, predestined path to becoming the king of a vast chocolate empire and one of the country's richest people. He was born in a fieldstone farmhouse on September 13, 1857, near Derry Church, the small town that would eventually become Hershey, Pennsylvania. He was the only surviving child of Henry and Fanny Hershey, both descended from the Pennsylvania Dutch. The family was of Mennonite stock, and the tradition instilled the young M.S. Hershey with hard-working and frugal values that he would keep for the rest of his life.

As soon as he started his schooling at seven years old, Hershey appeared headed for a rough education. He changed schools often, attending seven different ones as his family moved throughout the region. The lack of constancy led him to finally drop out at 14 and pursue an apprenticeship instead. He first worked with the publisher of the pacifist newspaper Der Waffenlose Waechter, German for "The Unarmed Watchman." There he slowly learned that he was not cut out for the printing business. He was fired when he angrily threw the owner's hat into the printing machinery.

Hershey's mother then paid to send him to apprentice with Joseph H. Royer, a confectioner in nearby Lancaster. Hershey worked at Joe Royer's Ice Cream Parlor and Garden, a popular spot for the townspeople. He enjoyed the work much more than that at the printer, and Royer soon promoted him to candy-making duties in the kitchen.

After four years of learning the trade, the 19-year-old Hershey decided to start his own candy business. With his apprenticeship savings and $750 from his mother and aunt, he headed to Philadelphia to make his fortune. He rented a three-story building on Spring Garden Street, spending his days boiling, stretching and cutting caramel and his nights selling them for pennies. He then expanded into selling nuts and baked goods. Yet despite his efforts and constant financial help from his mother's family, Hershey could not keep his fledgling business profitable. The venture folded after six years, and he returned to Lancaster.

Successive attempts at selling his candy ended similarly. He arrived in Denver in 1882 just in time for a local depression that hampered his work. Similar travels to Chicago, New Orleans and New York City also failed. Problems pestered Hershey, ranging from unforgiving landlords to young troublemakers setting his cart on fire and sending his horse bolting. Money problems followed him, and New York police finally confiscated his candy-making equipment after he defaulted on a payment. He used his last few dollars to buy a ticket back to Lancaster and to ship his remaining things home. At 30, he was nearly bankrupt.

These early failures did not squash Hershey's spirits. He set out to once again raise capital for another business, but this time no relative would offer help. None trusted his track record. He finally amassed enough money from loans to rent a warehouse that once housed one of Thomas Edison's electric plants. In addition to his caramel duties, he worked on the side as a handyman and salesman in order to make ends meet, and his mother and aunt helped wrap the candy that he churned out. And finally, luck smiled on him.

An English candy importer named Decies happened to taste one of the caramels. He asked Hershey if he could sell them in England. Hershey had never thought of that before, but he knew his product was suited for export in Denver he had learned to use fresh milk in his creations, which would stay fresh longer than others.

Business boomed for his "Crystal A" caramels. Orders poured in faster than he and the workers he hired could fill them. Only four years after arriving back in Lancaster, he was not only renting the whole building but had also built two new floors and bought adjacent properties. He soon had to build plants in other cities, including branches in New York and Chicago. All of them churned out his many caramel creations, which he gave exotic names like Lotuses, Cocoanut Ices, Icelets and Uniques. Hershey continued playing an everyday role making them despite the newfound success. He would help in the Lancaster plant, shoveling cinders into dump carts and rolling candy. The boss who would eventually become known as "Dad Hershey" needed to be personally involved, eating with his workers in the cafeteria and persuading construction workers to teach him a little of their trade.

While keeping his hand in all areas of his business, Hershey reserved the bulk of his attention for the sweets. Although chocolate became vital to production, Hershey initially used it only to coat some of his candies. In 1892, he had attended the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. It was here that the future chocolate king saw and bought chocolate-making machinery from Germany. More than a hundred "novelties" were coated with that chocolate, and they became some of his best sellers. He told his cousin, "Caramels are only a fad. Chocolate is a permanent thing."

He was able to pursue this when the American Caramel Company, his chief competitor, offered $1 million — roughly $24 million today — to buy Crystal A in 1900. After the sale, he surrendered the factory, machinery, stock, formulas and trademark. However, he refused to sell his chocolate rights and the needed equipment. He rented a wing of his former factory and was soon selling his new line. "This was the best business deal I ever made, because most of my competitors became my customers," he said.

Business soon outgrew the rented wing in Lancaster, and Hershey began looking for a new place. He considered another site in Lancaster and places in Baltimore and Yonkers, New York. Eventually, he decided to forego cities entirely and picked a spot next to Spring Creek near his hometown of Derry Church. The site was near the many dairy farms that he would need, and a nearby quarry could supply building materials. The location was also relatively close to the ports of Philadelphia and New York.

Surveyors arrived in January 1903, and construction began that March. In a race with construction, M.S. Hershey tinkered with a new formula for making chocolate. Milk chocolate in particular was not popular at the time it was a luxury good produced exclusively and in secret in Switzerland and Germany. Hershey wanted to produce it in mass quantities and make it affordable for all. He spent weeks experimenting, using powdered milk as the Swiss used and then trying cream and sugar. The heating temperature, cooking time and order of ingredients were all subject to manipulation during the many 16-hour workdays put in by Hershey and his staff. For a while it seemed as though construction might finish before the right recipe was found.

The breakthrough finally came from John Schmalbach, a trusted worker from the Lancaster plant who visited for a single day. After a few hours, he found the combination of chocolate-making elements that Hershey wanted. The many trials finally yielded the Hershey Process, which would form the basis for the company's production for decades. The chocolate made with this recipe could be stored for several months without spoiling and although the fermentation of milk fat caused a slightly sour hint that Swiss chocolate lacked, Americans would come to expect the taste from their chocolate. In fact, other American manufacturers would have to add that taste to suit public demand.

The factory officially went into operation in the winter of 1904. Work slowed in Lancaster, and then transferred completely to Derry Church. As workers changed locations and new ones were hired, Hershey set about accommodating them. From the outset, he planned to build an entire town around his manufacturing complex. As Michael D'Antonio described it, the plan called for "a perfect American town in a bucolic natural setting, where healthy, right-living, and well-paid workers lived in safe, happy homes." Experience had taught the boss that employees appreciated being treated fairly. The town plan allowed them to live independently in a true community, complete with churches, stores, public trolley transportation and a fire department where he volunteered. Homes had modern amenities such as electricity, indoor plumbing and central heating during a time when less than 8% of American homes were wired for power. Architects also had instructions to give each new house its unique style and charm. In the following years, an amusement park, golf courses and a zoo were added to the budding community.

Milton Hershey credited his wife Kitty with the idea for his next great venture: a school for underprivileged boys. Kitty noted that although the childless couple traveled all over Europe and lived comfortably, they still had more money than they could spend. She suggested putting some of it toward a boarding school. Hershey dreamed of guaranteeing the students the well-rounded education that he never had. In addition to the usual writing and math, he wanted them to learn practical skills. "I want to see that every one of them learns a trade," he said. "Let them learn to earn their own livings. Some will want to be farmers, and they ought to be taught the best methods of farm management. But there will be others who want to be electricians, carpenters, type-setters or plumbers. We'll give them a chance to learn all these things."

Hershey thereby deeded 486 acres of farming land to the Hershey Trust Company for the construction of a school for orphaned boys. The Hershey Industrial School, which would later be renamed the Milton Hershey School, took in its first two students in 1909, followed by others from Lebanon, Harrisburg and beyond.

Jack Kerstetter, one of the thousands who have attended the school, compiled some of his recollections in his memoir, Behind the Chocolate Curtain. He described the place as one "set apart from the outside world, not as a fence around any school, or as a stone wall separating East and West Berlin, but just an invisible curtain founded by a man who had an idea and shared his love" (Qtd. Hinkle, 2004). Kerstetter wrote of how Hershey established a student work program whereby twelve-year-old pupils could earn 25 cents and then graduate to 50 cents at 15. The businessman also taught them to budget, encouraging them to put half of their earnings and allowances into a savings account. Upon graduation, he sent them into the world with $100, the same amount he had carried sewn into his jacket pocket as he had struggled to make a living.

In the early years, students lived in the very homestead on which Hershey had been born. Eventually the student body increased to the point of needing additional rooming space, and other buildings were converted to dormitories and kindergartens. Almost every year brought additional students, and that trend accelerated when the school started accepting girls as well as boys.

In the meantime, Hershey's company was growing as quickly as his school. In 1919, it earned $58 million, roughly equivalent to $273 million today according to the U.S. Federal Reserve. Mounting sugar prices associated with the ongoing world war caused problems, but even they could not topple the company. Although his company ran a deficit and had to allow a bank to mortgage the property and oversee control, M.S. Hershey increased production and efficiency company-wide to return Hershey's to the black by 1921.

Hershey also took the lead in securing his workers. During the Great Depression of the 1920s and 1930s, he gave jobs to about 600 construction workers from the area. Hershey ignored the advice of those close to him who said it was not the proper time to start a building campaign. Hershey saw that the community needed help and that supply costs were low. While much of the rest of the country sat unemployed, Hershey's workers built new hotels, schools, a community center, a stadium and a sports arena. All these new sights also created jobs in the tourist trade.

The Hershey influence stretched far beyond American soil. During World War II, for example, Hershey's supplied American troops in Europe and the Pacific with more a billion chocolate bars. Special "Ration D" or "Tropical" bars did not melt in the hot and humid Pacific theater. Parts of the plant in Hershey were even dedicated to churning out munitions. After the war, the company was awarded five Army-Navy E Production Awards for its service.

The Hershey brand expanded beyond those iconic chocolate bars and Hershey Kisses with such goods as Twizzlers, Icebreakers, Reese's, Almond Joy, Milk Duds, Mr. Goodbar, Bubble Yum and dozens of other varieties. Besides becoming the largest chocolate maker on the continent, the company also started new ventures. Hershey's Chocolate World, a visitor's center, opened with mascots, presentations, shows, shops and restaurants. The trust company ran, and continues to run, the Hershey Bears professional hockey team, Hersheypark, Hersheypark Stadium and the GIANT Center, all of which are situated in the town of Hershey.

Hershey kept busy in his old age with these investments and others things. He opened the doors of his mansion for the country club. He continued having business lunches with his managers, keeping close tabs on the company he founded. He still made regular appearances in the experimentation grounds at the factory. His nurses listened to many stories about his youth and his time with Kitty. On his 80th birthday, 6,000 Hershey's employees threw him a party at the arena, complete with a 3-foot-tall cake, four local bands, flowers, speeches and the children from his school.

Time finally caught up to Milton S. Hershey on October 13, 1945, when he died of a heart attack at 88. He died at the Hershey Medical Center a year after retiring from the board, and he is buried next to his parents and wife in the cemetery of the town that bears his name.

Before he died and without public fanfare, Hershey had willed the vast majority of his wealth to the Milton Hershey School through the Hershey Trust. Thanks to the stock shares and assets, the school is one of the wealthiest in the world. Its 1,300 students and staff enjoy about $66 billion in assets for its programs. More than for the huge company he built — with its nearly 14,000 employees and $4 billion annual sales — or for his personal riches, M.S. Hershey's legacy will endure through things such as his school. After all, this was a man who often proclaimed, "Business is a matter of human service." His public projects, his philanthropies and the true community he built all serve as lasting reminders of that conviction.

The new era without the long-time leader brought new challenges for the Hershey's. The brand's different branches developed sometimes strained and confusing relationships among one another. The commercial enterprises grumbled over their ownership by the Milton Hershey School and its trust. Other candy giants, particularly Mars and Nestlé, posed new competitive challenges.

Even if fierce competition within the industry and internal problems slowed growth, Hershey seems to have risen to the challenges. The company recorded about $4 billion in sales in 2005, led in part by active development of new goods for the new century, such as candy for dieters and variations of old favorites. Times have changed dramatically since the business officially began operating under the Hershey name in 1894, but it has shown it can adapt. Perhaps still greater challenges lay ahead.


In 1942, the Hershey Hotel Was a Chocolate-Scented POW Camp

Escorted by agents of the U.S. State Department and the Pennsylvania Motor Police, their caravan of cars wound up a hill past hastily assembled guard shacks and a barbed wire fence. The automobile passengers had difficulty perceiving the incongruity of their destination—a five-story brick edifice with a Spanish-style tile roof, hundreds of windows, wide open terraces and carefully manicured gardens overlooking dairy farms, a school for orphans, a large factory and a blacked-out company town. This was a prison unlike any other, and it was to be their new home.

After succumbing to a German offensive in the spring of 1940, the French government agreed to an armistice that nominally kept France and its colonies intact, even as her capital became occupied territory and many of her citizens Nazi captives. A collaboration regime governed the unoccupied portion of the state from the town of Vichy, as Free French forces vowed to carry on the fight in France’s colonies.

The United States initially granted Vichy France full recognition as Franklin Roosevelt sought to neutralize French military assets and encourage opposition to the Nazi occupation force in northern France. From the outset, however, American officials were distrustful of the Vichy French diplomats sent to the United States.

Vichy France’s ambassador to the U.S., Gaston Henry-Haye, was dining at the Chinese embassy on November 8, 1942, when news reached him about Operation Torch, the Allied invasion of French North Africa. Four days later Germany invaded the remainder of France to protect its southern flank, and the Vichy regime was compelled to hand over its American diplomats to the Nazis. Given the situation of these citizens, Secretary of State Cordell Hull began reconsidering the status of the Vichy officials on American soil, even though France and the U.S. were not technically at war. Henry-Haye and his compatriots soon found themselves in a strange kind of diplomatic limbo, fated to become pawns in the increasingly volatile fight between Axis and Allies.

Vichy France Ambassador Gaston Henry-Haye. (Foto: Public Domain/WikiCommons)  

Ten years earlier it was not war but the state of economy foremost in the minds of Americans, including confectionery king Milton Hershey and those who inhabited the factory town he built. Because its products remained relatively affordable, the Hershey Chocolate Corporation fared better than many companies during the Great Depression. Demand for construction workers and prices for building materials were plummeting, so Milton Hershey seized the opportunity to serve his altruism, his penchant for a bargain and his dream of building a grand hotel on Hershey’s highest point. In spite of its scale, its unique design and its luxurious furnishings, the Hotel Hershey was completed in just 18 months and opened in 1933. Hershey defended its extravagance: “Other men have their yachts to play with. The hotel is my yacht.”

With war looming in the late 󈧢s, Milton Hershey shrewdly sought out government contracts to develop cocoa-based products specifically for military rations. The relationships developed in this arrangement may be what led Hotel Hershey general manager Joseph Gassler to extend an extraordinary invitation to Secretary Hull in regards to his Vichy French problem on Nov. 12, 1942:

I have the honor to advise you that Hotel Hershey has placed its facilities at your service … I shall be very happy to have these people as our guests and assure you, my dear Secretary, that we will do our utmost, in every respect, to give the high standard of service which the famous Hotel Hershey knows how to give.

The specifics of his offer asked $7.50 per day to house adults and $4 for children and guards with the State Department picking up the tab for incidental expenses and gratuities. With the war pilfering both his customers and his staff, Gassler, who was also a close confidant to Milton Hershey, perhaps saw the predicament of the Vichy diplomats as an opportunity to improve his employer’s fortunes and standing. A mere two days later the New York Times published a large aerial photo of the Hotel Hershey under the headline, “Where French Diplomats Will Be Housed.”

The second-floor entrance to Hotel Hershey. (Photo: Matt Chan/flickr)

The first group of detainees to arrive at the hotel included Henry-Haye, seven members of his Washington, D.C. staff and their families. For the next 10 months, as many as 94 French citizens—those the State Department deemed a security risk—attached to consulates in New York, Chicago and elsewhere had the opportunity to experience, in the words of the Ajad, “one of the most secluded vacation spots in Central Pennsylvania.” Although not allowed to leave unescorted, the French were able to avail themselves of the sprawling lawns, rose gardens, a nine-hole golf course, tennis courts, a game room and the large patio offering a stunning view of a nascent Hershey Park. A makeshift chapel offered Sunday mass, and a lycée gave the children some semblance of normalcy.

The fountain in the lobby of the Hershey Hotel. (Foto: Public Domain/WikiCommons)  

Few of Hershey’s citizens knew much about what was happening on the hill above them, although two busboys at the time, John Vetrulli and his cousin William Cognoli, later recalled some details in a 1993 newspaper interview. The French dressed formally for meals, which often included Burgundy wine paid for by the U.S. government (the detainees paid for mixed drinks). Henry-Haye allowed his large Dalmatian to accompany him to the dining room. The children seemed happy enough, and Vertrulli even traded a stamp collection with one French boy for $10 and some French coins.

According to State Department reports, however, the adults among the detainees bristled at any attempt at control, “behaving like spoiled children … with utter disregard to the rules and regulations regarding their boundary limits.” The French made up excuses for doctor’s visits and shopping excursions, spoke disrespectfully with the guards and even vandalized hotel property. Swastikas appeared on the snow-covered lawns, and one gentleman who used the caddyshack as a makeshift art studio was found to be painting a portrait of Philippe Petain, the collaborationist head of Vichy France.

Philippe Pétain, Chief of State for Vichy France, at his final meeting with the departing American ambassador William D. Leahy, 1942. (Photo: Public Domain/WikiCommons)

Only Henry-Haye and 16 others remained by September 30, 1943, as many of the French, particularly those with families, had agreed to work with the Allies and were released. No longer wishing to bear the expense for so few prisoners, the State Department moved the Vichy diplomats to a smaller establishment in Warm Springs, Virginia, closer to other detained Axis officials. A prisoner exchange with Germany did not happen until early 1944 in Lisbon, where the well-fed Henry-Haye commented to one American just out of a Nazi internment camp, “You have indeed lost a lot of weight.” Although he was re-appointed mayor of Versailles upon his return, Henry-Haye was barred from public office after the war.

On October 1, 1943, the Hotel Hershey immediately re-opened its doors to the public. After several renovations in the intervening years, including the 2001 addition of a spa offering chocolate-inspired treatments, the Hotel continues to offer a one-of-a-kind experience to those who can afford its luxuries. While many went without the luxury of liberty during World War II, this episode in Hershey showcased the United States’ commitment to diplomacy during a time when war overshadowed other ideals and notions of comfort.


US Navy is ‘under cyber siege’ from Chinese hackers hemorrhaging national secrets

Posted On April 29, 2020 15:48:21

An internal US Navy review concluded that the service and its various industry partners are “under cyber siege” from Chinese hackers who are building Beijing’s military capabilities while eroding the US’s advantage, The Wall Street Journal reported March 12, 2019.

Chinese hackers have repeatedly hit the Navy, defense contractors, and even universities that partner with the service.

“We are under siege,” a senior Navy official told The Journal. “People think it’s much like a deadly virus — if we don’t do anything, we could die.”

Breaches have been “numerous,” according to the review. While China is identified as the primary threat, hackers from Russia and Iran have also been causing their share of trouble.

Sailors stand watch in the Fleet Operations Center at the headquarters of US Fleet Cyber Command/US 10th Fleet, Dec. 14, 2017.

(US Navy Photo by Mass Communication Specialist Samuel Souvannason)

Secretary of the Navy Richard Spencer launched the recently concluded review in October 2018, warning that “attacks on our networks are not new, but attempts to steal critical information are increasing in both severity and sophistication.”

“We must act decisively to fully understand both the nature of these attacks and how to prevent further loss of vital military information,” he added.

In one high-profile incident lin 2018, Chinese government hackers stole important data on US Navy undersea-warfare programs from an unidentified contractor. Among the stolen information were plans for a new supersonic anti-ship missile, The Washington Post reported in June 2018, citing US officials.

That and a second breach led Navy leadership to order the review.

The Journal described the findings of the internal Navy cybersecurity review as “dire,” adding that the report “depicts a branch of the armed forces under relentless cyberattack by foreign adversaries and struggling in its response to the scale and sophistication of the problem.”

The Navy and the Pentagon reportedly “have only a limited understanding of the actual totality of losses that are occurring,” meaning the situation could be even worse than the Navy fears.

Last week, The Journal reported that Chinese hackers have targeted more than two dozen universities in the US and elsewhere in an attempt to steal military secrets, particularly those related to maritime technology.

The Navy is not the only US military service branch in China’s crosshairs.

Adm. Philip Davidson, head of US Indo-Pacific Command, told the Senate Armed Services Committee in April 2018 that Beijing is snatching anything not nailed down — “stealing technology in just about every domain and trying to use it to their advantage,” Stars and Stripes reported.

A US defense official previously told The Journal that China was targeting America’s “weak underbelly,” saying that cybersecurity breaches are “an asymmetric way to engage the United States without ever having to fire a round.”

China has repeatedly denied engaging in cyberattacks against the US or other countries.

See artikkel ilmus algselt Business Insider. Follow @BusinessInsider on Twitter.

Veel linke, mis meile meeldivad

VÕIMAS AJALUGU

Higgins Boats

Higgins Industries designed and built two basic classes of military craft.

The first was landing craft, constructed of wood and steel and used to transport fully armed troops, light tanks, field artillery, and other mechanized equipment and supplies to shore. These boats helped make the amphibious landings of World War II possible.

Higgins also designed and manufactured supply vessels and specialized patrol craft, including high-speed PT boats, antisubmarine boats, and dispatch boats.

LCVP (Landing Craft, Vehicle, Personnel)
The LCVP was the most famous landing craft designed and produced by Higgins Industries. It could land soldiers, and even jeeps, on a beach. LCVPs were used in North Africa, Europe, and the Pacific during the war.

From the Eureka.
The LCVP (Landing Craft, Vehicle, Personnel), the best-known landing craft designed by Andrew Higgins, evolved from a boat he created before the war for use in the swamps and marshes of Louisiana. Trappers and oil companies needed a rugged, shallow-bottomed craft that could navigate these waters, run aground, and retract itself without damaging its hull. Higgins developed a boat that could perform all these tasks: a spoonbill-bowed craft he called the Eureka. Over time he modified and improved his craft and found markets for it in the United States and abroad.

. to the LCP(L)
During the 1930s Higgins tried to interest the U.S. Navy in adapting his shallow-draft Eureka for use as an amphibious landing craft. The navy showed little interest, but Higgins persisted. After a long struggle, he finally secured a government contract to build modified Eurekas for military use. The new boat was called the LCP (Landing Craft, Personnel) and, later, the LCP(L) (Landing Craft, Personnel, Large). In its most advanced form the LCP(L) measured 36 feet in length. It could transport men from ships offshore directly onto a beach, then retract itself, turn, and head back to sea.

The LCVP (Landing Craft, Vehicle, Personnel) was developed because the U.S. Marines needed a boat capable of transporting vehicles to shore. Higgins adapted the LCP(L) to meet this requirement. He replaced the LCP(L)'s rounded bow with a retractable ramp. The new craft was tested for the first time on May 26, 1941, on Lake Pontchartrain. It carried a truck and 36 Higgins employees safely to shore. The LCVP became the military's standard vehicle and personnel landing craft. Thousands were in service during the war.

New Orleans" Home of the Higgins Boats
"If Higgins had not designed and built those LCVPs, we never could have landed over an open beach. The whole strategy of the war would have been different."
--General Dwight D. Eisenhower

The city of New Orleans made a unique and crucial contribution to America's war effort. This was the home of Higgins Industries, a small boat company owned by a flamboyant entrepreneur named Andrew Jackson Higgins. The story of Higgins' role in the war is little known today, but his contribution to the Allied victory was immeasurable.

World War II presented Allied war planners with a tactical dilemma--how to make large amphibious landings of armies against defended coasts. For America this was a particularly thorny problem, since its armed forces had to mount amphibious invasions at sites ranging from Pacific atolls to North Africa to the coast of France.

Higgins' contribution was to design and mass-produce boats that could ferry soldiers, jeeps, and even tanks from a ship at sea directly onto beaches. Such craft gave Allied planners greater flexibility. They no longer needed to attack heavily defended ports before landing an assault force. Higgins' boats were used in every major American amphibious operation of World War II. His achievements earned him many accolades. The greatest came from General Dwight D. Eisenhower, who called Higgins "the man who won the war for us."

From the Bayou to the Battlefront
Before World War II Andrew Higgins operated a small boatyard, building workboats designed to operate in the shallow waters of Louisiana's bayous. During the 1920s and 1930s America's military began exploring ways to make amphibious landings. Higgins became involved in this effort, adapting designs for shallow-draft boats he had developed for peacetime uses. His company created amphibious assault craft capable of shuttling men and equipment quickly and safely from ship to shore. When the war came, business boomed. Higgins built new factories with mass production lines and employed thousands of workers. He even opened a training school for boat operators.

New Orleans Naval Giant During World War II Higgins Industries grew from a small business operating a single boatyard into the largest private employer in Louisiana. The company turned out astounding numbers of boats and ships. In September 1943 the US Navy had 14,072 vessels. Of these, 8,865 had been designed and built by Higgins Industries.


Vaata videot: Flags of all countries on the Rubiks Cube 3x3 - 15x15 (Juuni 2022).


Kommentaarid:

  1. Waldon

    I advise you to visit the site, which has many articles on the topic that interests you.

  2. Kazuo

    Tähelepanuväärne idee

  3. Fitzgibbon

    Sa eksid. Ma võin seda tõestada. Kirjuta mulle PM-i, suhtleme.

  4. Bridger

    Meie vahel rääkisime.

  5. Yozshugor

    See on üks vähem muret! Edu! Parem!

  6. Meztitilar

    Saame teada! Tänan teid uudiste eest.

  7. Haji

    On täna selle foorumi leidnud juhuslikult ja see oli spetsiaalselt registreerunud arutelul osalemiseks.



Kirjutage sõnum